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      Hyperfibrinogenemia Is an Independent Risk Factor for Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis

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          Abstract

          It is important to identify patients at risk for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis because renal artery stenosis is a progressive disease and a potentially correctable problem. To determine the risk factors for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis, we performed renal arteriography at the time of cardiac catheterization in 270 patients (M:F, 193:77, mean age: 59 years) with clinical ischemic heart disease. Before the procedure, demographic data, medical history, physical findings and laboratory data were obtained. The degree of coronary artery stenosis and renal artery stenosis was quantified with automatic edge detection technique. Significant renal artery stenosis, defined as a narrowing of the diameter by more than 50%, was identified in 28 (10%) patients. Three patients (1%) had bilateral disease. Significant coronary artery disease, defined as a narrowing of the diameter by more than 50%, was present in 231 patients (85%). By univariate logistic regression analysis, older age (68 ± 8 vs. 58 ± 10 years), the presence of hypertension (61% vs. 38%), the extent of coronary artery disease, a high fibrinogen level (391 ± 93 mg/dl vs. 335 ± 109 mg/dl), a low albumin level (3.9 ± 0.4 g/dl vs. 4.1 ± 0.4 g/dl), and a low hemoglobin level (12.5 ± 1.6 g/dl vs. 13.5 ± 1.6 g/dl) were associated with the presence of renal artery stenosis (p < 0.05). Serum lipids, lipoprotein(a), creatinine, sex, smoking, or diabetes were not associated. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age (OR: 2.43 analyzed by 10 years increment, p = 0.0001), the presence of hypertension (OR: 2.68, p = 0.039) and a higher fibrinogen level (OR: 1.63 analyzed by 100 mg/dl increment, p = 0.038) were significant risk factors of renal artery stenosis. Fibrinogen level was negatively correlated with albumin level (r = –0.18, p = 0.004). These results suggest that hyperfibrinogenemia as well as old age and hypertension are independent risk factors for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Hemostatic factors and the risk of myocardial infarction or sudden death in patients with angina pectoris. European Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities Angina Pectoris Study Group.

          Increased levels of certain hemostatic factors may play a part in the development of acute coronary syndromes and may be associated with an increased risk of coronary events in patients with angina pectoris. We conducted a prospective multicenter study of 3043 patients with angina pectoris who underwent coronary angiography and were followed for two years. Base-line measurements included the concentrations of selected hemostatic factors indicative of a thrombophilic state or endothelial injury. The results were analyzed in relation to the subsequent incidence of myocardial infarction or sudden coronary death. After adjustment for the extent of coronary artery disease and other risk factors, an increased incidence of myocardial infarction or sudden death was associated with higher base-line concentrations of fibrinogen (mean +/- SD, 3.28 +/- 0.74 g per liter in patients who subsequently had coronary events, as compared with 3.00 +/- 0.71 g per liter in those who did not; P = 0.01), von Willebrand factor antigen (138 +/- 49 percent vs. 125 +/- 49 percent, P = 0.05), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen (11.9 +/- 4.7 ng per milliliter vs. 10.0 +/- 4.2 ng per milliliter, P = 0.02). The concentration of C-reactive protein was also directly correlated with the incidence of coronary events (P = 0.05), except when we adjusted for the fibrinogen concentration. In patients with high serum cholesterol levels, the risk of coronary events rose with increasing levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, but the risk remained low even given high serum cholesterol levels in the presence of low fibrinogen concentrations. In patients with angina pectoris, the levels of fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor antigen, and t-PA antigen are independent predictors of subsequent acute coronary syndromes. In addition, low fibrinogen concentrations characterize patients at low risk for coronary events despite increased serum cholesterol levels. Our data are consistent with a pathogenetic role of impaired fibrinolysis, endothelial-cell injury, and inflammatory activity in the progression of coronary artery disease.
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            The coronary risk of unsuspected renal artery stenosis.

            This study was designed to determine the prevalence of unsuspected renal artery stenoses (RAS) in patients undergoing arteriography for evaluation of aneurysmal or occlusive vascular disease and whether symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) is more prevalent among patients with unsuspected RAS. We reviewed the arteriograms and medical records of 346 consecutive patients with aortic aneurysms or occlusive disease in whom RAS was unsuspected on clinical grounds. Aortography revealed unsuspected RAS (50% or greater diameter loss) in 98 patients (28%). Patients with RAS had a higher prevalence of mild, controlled hypertension (p < 0.001) and mild renal insufficiency (p < 0.001), but in no case was arteriography obtained to diagnose renovascular hypertension or ischemic nephropathy. Fifty-seven patients (58%) with unsuspected RAS had clinically overt CAD (documented myocardial infarction, positive coronary catheterization, previous coronary revascularization, ischemic electrocardiography changes, or angina pectoris), compared with 96 patients (39%) without RAS (p = 0.002). The correlation between the prevalence of CAD and RAS severity was highly significant (p < 0.001), and the relative odds ratio of CAD was highest for RAS measuring 75% or greater. Stepwise logistic regression analysis demonstrated three variables to be significantly and independently associated with CAD: 75% or greater RAS (p = 0.001), aortic aneurysm disease (p = 0.01), and hypertension (p = 0.001). RAS measuring 75% or greater diameter loss was associated with the highest estimated odds ratio: patients with this degree of RAS had a fourfold increase in the prevalence of clinically overt CAD. We also evaluated the relationship between RAS, mesenteric artery stenosis, and CAD; although RAS was more frequent among patients with mesenteric artery stenoses, mesenteric artery stenoses were not associated with CAD. Unsuspected RAS is common among patients with peripheral vascular disease and should be considered an independent marker for CAD.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              AJN
              Am J Nephrol
              10.1159/issn.0250-8095
              American Journal of Nephrology
              S. Karger AG
              0250-8095
              1421-9670
              1999
              December 1999
              26 November 1999
              : 19
              : 6
              : 649-654
              Affiliations
              aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul, and bUniversity of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea
              Article
              13536 Am J Nephrol 1999;19:649–654
              10.1159/000013536
              10592358
              © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Tables: 4, References: 25, Pages: 6
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13536
              Categories
              Clinical Study

              Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

              Fibrinogen, Atherosclerosis, Risk factors, Renal artery stenosis

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