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      Glycemic index and glycemic load of common fruit juices in Thailand

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          Abstract

          Background

          The glycemic index (GI) reflects body responses to different carbohydrate-rich foods. Generally, it cannot be simply predicted from the composition of the food but needs in vivo testing.

          Methods

          Healthy adult volunteers with normal body mass index were recruited. Each volunteer was asked to participate in the study center twice in the first week to consume the reference glucose (50 g) and once a week thereafter to consume the study fruit juices in a random order. The study fruit juices were Florida orange juice, Tangerine orange juice, Blackcurrant mixed juice, and Veggie V9 orange carrot juice which were already available on the market. The serving size of each fruit juice was calculated to provide 50 g of glycemic carbohydrate. The fasting and subsequent venous blood samplings were obtained through the indwelling venous catheters at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the test drink consumption and immediately sent for plasma glucose and insulin. GI and insulin indices were calculated from the incremental area under the curve of postprandial glucose of the test drink divided by the reference drink. Glycemic load (GL) was calculated from the GI multiplied by carbohydrate content in the serving size.

          Results

          A total of 12 volunteers participated in the study. Plasma glucose and insulin peaked at 30 min after the drink was consumed, and then started to decline at 120 min. Tangerine orange juice had the lowest GI (34.1 ± 18.7) and GL (8.1 g). Veggie V9 had the highest GI (69.6 ± 43.3) but it was in the third GL rank (12.4 g). The insulin responses correlated well with the GI. Fructose to glucose ratio was inversely associated with GI and insulin responses for all study fruit juices. Fiber contents in the study juices did not correlate with glycemic and insulin indices.

          Conclusions

          The GIs of fruit juices were varied but consistently showed a positive correlation with insulin indices. Fruit juices with low GI are a healthier choice for people with diabetes as well as individuals who want to stay healthy since it produces more subtle postprandial glucose and insulin responses.

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          Most cited references34

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          Progression of NAFLD to diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease or cirrhosis.

          NAFLD is a spectrum of progressive liver disease that encompasses simple steatosis, NASH, fibrosis and, ultimately, cirrhosis. NAFLD is recognized as the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome, as these conditions have insulin resistance as a common pathophysiological mechanism. Therefore, NAFLD is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and abdominal obesity. As lifestyles have become increasingly sedentary and dietary patterns have changed, the worldwide prevalence of NAFLD has increased dramatically and is projected to be the principal aetiology for liver transplantation within the next decade. Importantly, a growing body of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated not only with liver-related morbidity and mortality, but also with an increased risk of developing both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This article reviews the evidence that suggests NAFLD is a multisystem disease and the factors that might determine interindividual variation in the development and progression of its major hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations (principally type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease).
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            Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.

            The determine the effect of different foods on the blood glucose, 62 commonly eaten foods and sugars were fed individually to groups of 5 to 10 healthy fasting volunteers. Blood glucose levels were measured over 2 h, and expressed as a percentage of the area under the glucose response curve when the same amount of carbohydrate was taken as glucose. The largest rises were seen with vegetables (70 +/- 5%), followed by breakfast cereals (65 +/- 5%), cereals and biscuits (60 +/- 3%), fruit (50 +/- 5%), dairy products (35 +/- 1%), and dried legumes (31 +/- 3%). A significant negative relationship was seen between fat (p less than 0.01) and protein (p less than 0.001) and postprandial glucose rise but not with fiber or sugar content.
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              International Tables of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values: 2008

              OBJECTIVE—To systematically tabulate published and unpublished sources of reliable glycemic index (GI) values. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A literature search identified 205 articles published between 1981 and 2007. Unpublished data were also included where the data quality could be verified. The data were separated into two lists: the first representing more precise data derived from testing healthy subjects and the second primarily from individuals with impaired glucose metabolism. RESULTS—The tables, which are available in the online-only appendix, list the GI of over 2,480 individual food items. Dairy products, legumes, and fruits were found to have a low GI. Breads, breakfast cereals, and rice, including whole grain, were available in both high and low GI versions. The correlation coefficient for 20 staple foods tested in both healthy and diabetic subjects was r = 0.94 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS—These tables improve the quality and quantity of GI data available for research and clinical practice.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                sirinuch.c@chula.ac.th
                Journal
                J Health Popul Nutr
                J Health Popul Nutr
                Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
                BioMed Central (London )
                1606-0997
                2072-1315
                28 February 2022
                28 February 2022
                2022
                : 41
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.7922.e, ISNI 0000 0001 0244 7875, Pediatric Nutrition Research Unit, Division of Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, , Chulalongkorn University, ; Bangkok, 10330 Thailand
                [2 ]GRID grid.7922.e, ISNI 0000 0001 0244 7875, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, , Chulalongkorn University, ; Bangkok, 10330 Thailand
                [3 ]GRID grid.411628.8, ISNI 0000 0000 9758 8584, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, , King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, ; The Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, 10330 Thailand
                [4 ]GRID grid.411628.8, ISNI 0000 0000 9758 8584, Division of Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, , King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, ; The Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, 10330 Thailand
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9712-2474
                Article
                284
                10.1186/s41043-022-00284-z
                8886830
                35227323
                3d33835f-d531-4fc8-9cff-ae15302e59bd
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 18 November 2020
                : 10 February 2022
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                glycemic index,glycemic load,postprandial glucose,insulin,fructose,fruit juice
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                glycemic index, glycemic load, postprandial glucose, insulin, fructose, fruit juice

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