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      Estimates of the prevalence of speech and motor speech disorders in persons with complex neurodevelopmental disorders

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          Abstract

          Estimates of the prevalence of speech and motor speech disorders in persons with complex neurodevelopmental disorders (CND) can inform research in the biobehavioural origins and treatment of CND. The goal of this research was to use measures and analytics in a diagnostic classification system to estimate the prevalence of speech and motor speech disorders in convenience samples of speakers with one of eight types of CND. Audio-recorded conversational speech samples from 346 participants with one of eight types of CND were obtained from a database of participants recruited for genetic and behavioural studies of speech sound disorders (i.e., excluding dysfluency) during the past three decades. Data reduction methods for the speech samples included narrow phonetic transcription, prosody-voice coding, and acoustic analyses. Standardized measures were used to cross-classify participants’ speech and motor speech status. Compared to the 17.8% prevalence of four types of motor speech disorders reported in a study of 415 participants with idiopathic Speech Delay (SD), 47.7% of the present participants with CND met criteria for one of four motor speech disorders, including Speech Motor Delay (25.1%), Childhood Dysarthria (13.3%), Childhood Apraxia of Speech (4.3%), and concurrent Childhood Dysarthria and Childhood Apraxia of Speech (4.9%). Findings are interpreted to indicate a substantial prevalence of speech disorders, and notably, a substantial prevalence of motor speech disorders in persons with some types of CND. We suggest that diagnostic classification information from standardized motor speech assessment protocols can contribute to research in the pathobiologies of CND.

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          Most cited references 81

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              Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language.

              Despite intensive work on language-brain relations, and a fairly impressive accumulation of knowledge over the last several decades, there has been little progress in developing large-scale models of the functional anatomy of language that integrate neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and psycholinguistic data. Drawing on relatively recent developments in the cortical organization of vision, and on data from a variety of sources, we propose a new framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language which moves towards remedying this situation. The framework posits that early cortical stages of speech perception involve auditory fields in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally (although asymmetrically). This cortical processing system then diverges into two broad processing streams, a ventral stream, which is involved in mapping sound onto meaning, and a dorsal stream, which is involved in mapping sound onto articulatory-based representations. The ventral stream projects ventro-laterally toward inferior posterior temporal cortex (posterior middle temporal gyrus) which serves as an interface between sound-based representations of speech in the superior temporal gyrus (again bilaterally) and widely distributed conceptual representations. The dorsal stream projects dorso-posteriorly involving a region in the posterior Sylvian fissure at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt), and ultimately projecting to frontal regions. This network provides a mechanism for the development and maintenance of "parity" between auditory and motor representations of speech. Although the proposed dorsal stream represents a very tight connection between processes involved in speech perception and speech production, it does not appear to be a critical component of the speech perception process under normal (ecologically natural) listening conditions, that is, when speech input is mapped onto a conceptual representation. We also propose some degree of bi-directionality in both the dorsal and ventral pathways. We discuss some recent empirical tests of this framework that utilize a range of methods. We also show how damage to different components of this framework can account for the major symptom clusters of the fluent aphasias, and discuss some recent evidence concerning how sentence-level processing might be integrated into the framework.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                8802622
                26996
                Clin Linguist Phon
                Clin Linguist Phon
                Clinical linguistics & phonetics
                0269-9206
                1464-5076
                26 June 2019
                2019
                16 July 2019
                : 33
                : 8
                : 707-736
                Affiliations
                [a ]Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA
                [b ]Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
                [c ]Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Augustana College, Rock Island, IL, USA
                Author notes
                CONTACT Lawrence D. Shriberg, shriberg@ 123456waisman.wisc.edu , University of Wisconsin-Madison, Waisman Center, Room 439, 1500 Highland Ave. Madison, WI 53705, USA
                NIHMS1524504
                10.1080/02699206.2019.1595732
                6633911
                31221012

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.

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