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      Presence of pain on three or more days of the week is associated with worse patient reported outcomes in adults with sickle cell disease

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          While acute episodic pain is the hallmark of sickle cell disease (SCD), transition to chronic pain is a major cause of morbidity and impaired quality of life. One of the core diagnostic criteria used by Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) to define chronic SCD pain is the presence of pain on a “majority of days” in the past 6 months in one or more locations. The frequency characteristic of “majority of days” is adapted from the criteria of 15 days or more per month, used to define chronic migraine, but there are inadequate data to support this cutoff in SCD. Using an existing dataset of adults with SCD who completed patient-reported outcomes of pain interference, physical functioning, anxiety, depression, and fatigue using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) patient-reported outcomes measures information system (PROMIS) short-form instruments, we examined the association of the presence of pain on 3 or more days per week with patient-reported outcomes of functioning. In unadjusted analyses, presence of pain on 3 or more days a week was associated with higher median PROMIS scores of pain interference, anxiety, and depression. Median PROMIS scores of fatigue and physical function were worse in women compared with men in unadjusted analyses. We did not find any difference in median PROMIS pain scores between adults aged ≤35 years compared with those aged ≥35 years. In linear regression models, after adjustment for age and sex, the presence of pain on 3 or more days a week was found to be associated with worse pain interference and anxiety. These data support the clinical relevance of the frequency characteristic of pain on a “majority of days” in the definition of chronic SCD pain, and provide the rationale for prospective studies to validate the clinical definition of chronic pain in SCD.

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          Most cited references 9

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          AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Sickle Cell Disease Pain.

          Pain in sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and high health care costs. Although episodic acute pain is the hallmark of this disorder, there is an increasing awareness that chronic pain is part of the pain experience of many older adolescents and adults. A common set of criteria for classifying chronic pain associated with SCD would enhance SCD pain research efforts in epidemiology, pain mechanisms, and clinical trials of pain management interventions, and ultimately improve clinical assessment and management. As part of the collaborative effort between the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks public-private partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy initiative developed the outline of an optimal diagnostic system for chronic pain conditions. Subsequently, a working group of experts in SCD pain was convened to generate core diagnostic criteria for chronic pain associated with SCD. The working group synthesized available literature to provide evidence for the dimensions of this disease-specific pain taxonomy. A single pain condition labeled chronic SCD pain was derived with 3 modifiers reflecting different clinical features. Future systematic research is needed to evaluate the feasibility, validity, and reliability of these criteria.
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            Gender differences in pain and healthcare utilization for adult sickle cell patients: The PiSCES Project.

            Many studies have found gender differences in frequency and intensity of pain. Women often report lower pain thresholds, higher pain ratings, and lower tolerance for pain. People with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience both chronic and acute pain throughout life. To compare adult men and women with SCD in terms of reported pain, crises, healthcare utilization, and opioid usage. Two hundred twenty-six adults with SCD in Virginia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of pain and completed daily diaries for 1-6 months. Subjects reported for the previous day their maximum SCD-related pain, distress, and interference (0-9 scale), whether they were in a sickle cell crisis, had unplanned utilization (clinic, emergency room, or hospitalization), or used opioids. Episodes of pain, crisis, or utilization were defined as consecutive days of such. Men and women were compared, using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age, SCD genotype, depression, and education. There were no significant differences between men and women in the percentage of days subjects experienced pain (men 58.6% vs. women 56.5%) or the number of pain episodes/6 months (7.7 vs. 9.6). Mean pain scores were comparable, when subjects were in crisis (5.5 vs. 5.6) or not (2.5 vs. 2.2). Distress and interference results were similar. Men with the SS genotype reported a higher percentage of days with crisis(18.5% vs. 11.6%) and utilization (5.1% vs. 2.7%) than women with the SS genotype. Contrary to many studies of pain, particularly chronic pain, men and women with SCD reported generally similar pain experiences.
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              Demographic correlates of fatigue in the US general population: results from the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) initiative.

              To investigate demographic correlates of fatigue in the US general population using a new instrument developed by the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS). First, we examined correlations between the new PROMIS instrument and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) and the SF-36v2 Vitality subscale. Based on prior findings, we further examined several demographic correlates of fatigue: whether women would report higher levels of fatigue compared to men, and whether married people would experience lower levels of fatigue compared to unmarried people. We also explored the relationship between age, education, and fatigue.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                09 February 2018
                : 11
                : 313-318
                [1 ]Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology-BMT, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
                [2 ]Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, BMT, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, 2015 Uppergate Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA, Tel +1 404 727 0710, Fax +1 404 785 1421, Email lkrishn@ 123456emory.edu
                © 2018 Bakshi et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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