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      Global Trend of Breast Cancer Mortality Rate: A 25-Year Study


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          breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death for women worldwide. In the past two decades, published epidemiological reports in different parts of the world show significant increase in breast cancer mortality rate. The aim of this study was to determine the 25-year trend of breast cancer mortality rate in 7 super regions defined by the Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), i.e. Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia and Oceania, Latin America and Caribbean, Central Europe and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, High-income.


          Our study population consisted of 195 world countries in the IHME pre-defined seven super regions. The age-standardized mortality rates from 1990 to 2015 were extracted from the IHME site. The reference life table for calculating mortality rates was constructed based on the lowest estimated age-specific mortality rates from all locations with populations over 5 million in the 2015 iteration of GBD. To determine the trend of breast cancer mortality rate, a generalized linear mixed model was fitted separately for each IHME region and super region.


          Statistical analysis showed a significant increase for breast cancer mortality rate in all super regions, except for High-income super region. For total world countries, the mean breast cancer mortality rate was 13.77 per 100,000 in 1990 and the overall slope of mortality rate was 0.7 per 100,000 from 1990 to 2015. The results showed that Latin America and Caribbean the highest increasing trend of breast cancer mortality rate during the years 1990 to 2015 (1.48 per 100,000).


          In general, our finding showed a significant increase in breast cancer mortality rate in the world during the past 25 years, which could be due to increase in incidence and prevalence of this cancer. Low this increasing trend is an alarm for health policy makers in all countries, especially in developing countries and low-income regions which experienced sharp slopes of breast cancer mortality rate.

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          Cancer Statistics in Korea: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Prevalence in 2014

          Purpose This study presents the 2014 nationwide cancer statistics in Korea, including cancer incidence, survival, prevalence, and mortality. Materials and Methods Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2014 was obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database and followed until December 31, 2015. Mortality data from 1983 to 2014 were obtained from Statistics Korea. The prevalence was defined as the number of cancer patients alive on January 1, 2015, among all cancer patients diagnosed since 1999. Crude and age-standardized rates (ASRs) for incidence, mortality, prevalence, and 5-year relative survivals were also calculated. Results In 2014, 217,057 and 76,611 Koreans were newly diagnosed and died from cancer respectively. The ASRs for cancer incidence and mortality in 2014 were 270.7 and 85.1 per 100,000, respectively. The all-cancer incidence rate has increased significantly by 3.4% annually from 1999 to 2012, and started to decrease after 2012 (2012-2014; annual percent change, –6.6%). However, overall cancer mortality has decreased 2.7% annually since 2002. The 5-year relative survival rate for patients diagnosed with cancer between 2010 and 2014 was 70.3%, an improvement from the 41.2% for patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1995. Conclusion Age-standardized cancer incidence rates have decreased since 2012 and mortality rates have also declined since 2002, while 5-year survival rates have improved remarkably from 1993-1995 to 2010-2014 in Korea.
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            Cancer incidence and mortality in Iran.

            Cancer is the third main cause of death in Iran. This report was provided for explaining cancer incidence and mortality. The National Cancer Registry reports from 2003 to 2006, population-based cancer registry reports from five provinces in 2006 and National Death Registry reports from 1999 to 2004 have been applied in this report. The age-standardized incidence rate of cancers was 98 and 110 per 100,000 among females and males. The male to female standard ratio was 1.12. The most common cancer among women and men was breast cancer (24) and stomach cancer (15), respectively. The estimated mortality rate for cancer was 41.1 and 65 per 100,000 for females and males in 2004. The current low cancer incidence rates in Iran might be due to lack of national cancer screening programs for prostate, colorectal or breast cancer, a consequence of incomplete registration as well as incomplete diagnosis of cancer patients; it is expected that it will rise dramatically in the future because of anticipated increase in life expectancy and westernized lifestyle. The first priorities for health policy makers should be developing, establishing and implementing national cancer control; or else, the health system could not respond to the demands regarding to diagnosis, treatment and palliation for these patients in the future.
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              Recent trends of cancer in Europe: a combined approach of incidence, survival and mortality for 17 cancer sites since the 1990s.

              We present a comprehensive overview of most recent European trends in population-based incidence of, mortality from and relative survival for patients with cancer since the mid 1990s. Data on incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival from the mid 1990s to early 2000 for the cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, colorectum, pancreas, larynx, lung, skin melanoma, breast, cervix, corpus uteri, ovary, prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, and Hodgkin's disease were obtained from cancer registries from 21 European countries. Estimated annual percentages change in incidence and mortality were calculated. Survival trends were analyzed by calculating the relative difference in 5-year relative survival between 1990-1994 and 2000-2002 using data from EUROCARE-3 and -4. Trends in incidence were generally favorable in the more prosperous countries from Northern and Western Europe, except for obesity related cancers. Whereas incidence of and mortality from tobacco-related cancers decreased for males in Northern, Western and Southern Europe, they increased for both sexes in Central Europe and for females nearly everywhere in Europe. Survival rates generally improved, mostly due to better access to specialized diagnostics, staging and treatment. Marked effects of organised or opportunistic screening became visible for breast, prostate and melanoma in the wealthier countries. Mortality trends were generally favourable, except for smoking related cancers. Cancer prevention and management in Europe is moving in the right direction. Survival increased and mortality decreased through the combination of earlier detection, better access to care and improved treatment. Still, cancer prevention efforts have much to attain, especially in the domain of female smoking prevalence and the emerging obesity epidemic.

                Author and article information

                Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
                Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev
                Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention : APJCP
                West Asia Organization for Cancer Prevention (Iran )
                : 20
                : 7
                : 2015-2020
                [1 ] Department of Administrative Science, Faculty of Shariaty, Tehran Branch, Technical and Vocational University (TVU),
                [3 ] Proteomics Research Center and Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran,
                [2 ] Department of Information Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.
                Author notes
                [* ]For Correspondence: y.soltan-zadeh@ucl.ac.uk
                © Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention

                This work is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)

                : 30 May 2018
                : 22 February 2019
                Research Article

                breast cancer- mortality rate- trend analysis


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