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      Flow cytometric detection of alpha‐1‐acid glycoprotein on feline circulating leucocytes

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          Objective

          To assess whether alpha‐1‐acid glycoprotein (AGP) can be detected on the membrane of feline circulating leucocytes.

          Design  The presence of AGP on circulating leucocytes was investigated in both clinically healthy cats and cats with different diseases. A group of feline coronavirus (FCoV)‐positive cats, comprising cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and cats not affected by FIP but seropositive for FCoV, were included in this study because the serum concentration of AGP increases during FCoV infection.

          Procedure  Flow cytometry (using an anti‐feline AGP antibody), serum protein electrophoresis, routine haematology and measurement of the serum AGP concentration were performed using blood samples from 32 healthy cats (19 FCoV‐seropositive), 13 cats with FIP and 12 with other diseases (6 FCoV‐seropositive). The proportion of cats with AGP‐positive leucocytes in the different groups (e.g. controls vs sick; FIP vs other diseases, etc.) or in cats with different intensities of inflammatory response was compared using a Chi‐square test.

          Results  AGP‐positive leucocytes were found in 23% of cats. Compared with controls, the proportion of patients with positive granulocytes and monocytes was higher among sick cats (especially cats with diseases other than FIP) and cats with high serum AGP concentration, but not in cats with leucocytosis or that were FCoV‐seropositive.

          Conclusion  AGP‐positive leucocytes can be found in feline blood, especially during inflammation. Conversely, no association between AGP‐positive leucocytes and FIP was found. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this finding and its diagnostic role in cats with inflammation.

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          Most cited references26

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          Feline infectious peritonitis: a review of clinicopathological changes in 65 cases, and a critical assessment of their diagnostic value.

          In 65 natural cases of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) the common clinicopathological changes included lymphopenia (77 per cent), neutrophilia (45 per cent), anaemia (37 per cent), hyperproteinaemia (39 per cent) and hyperglobulinaemia (39 per cent). There was no difference in the frequency of these abnormalities between the 38 cases of effusive disease and the 27 cases of non-effusive disease. The most consistent changes shown by serum protein electrophoresis were increases in alpha 2- and gamma-globulins. The protein content of the effusions ranged from 39 to 98 g/litre with the globulins comprising 50 to 82 per cent. Coronavirus serology showed a wide variation in antibody titres (0 to 2560) with 320 the modal titre. The diagnostic value of this information was evaluated by comparing it with data from 65 cats in which FIP was considered as a differential diagnosis, but another disease was diagnosed. None of the laboratory tests, including coronavirus serology, had good sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of the disease. The presence of multiple abnormalities compatible with the disease increased the specificity but decreased the sensitivity of the diagnosis.
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            The feline acute phase reaction

            The acute phase reaction (APR) is a response to potentially pathogenic stimuli. It begins with the release of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α from inflammatory cells. These cytokines induce fever, leucocytosis and release of serum acute phase proteins (APPs). In this review, the characteristics of the feline APR are described. In cats with inflammatory conditions, fever is a common finding, with leucocytosis due to the release of cells from the marginal pool, followed by activation of myelopoiesis. Because excitement frequently causes leucocytosis in cats, a diagnosis of inflammation should therefore be supported by additional findings such as the presence of toxic neutrophils. The major APPs are serum amyloid A and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), which both increase a few hours after the inflammatory stimulus and remain elevated for as long as the inflammation persists. AGP plays an important role in the diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and may also be useful also in studies of FIP pathogenesis.
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              Critical assessment of the diagnostic value of feline alpha1-acid glycoprotein for feline infectious peritonitis using the likelihood ratios approach.

              Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) increases in the blood of cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a lethal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). However, the diagnostic potential of AGP might be limited because AGP also increases in pathophysiological conditions other than FIP. In this retrospective study, the diagnostic potential of serum AGP concentration was evaluated on the basis of the pretest probability of disease, according to the Bayesian approach. Serum AGP levels from cats with FIP (group 1; n = 58) and without FIP (group 2; n = 104) were evaluated. Non-FIP cats were further subgrouped as follows: 2a) inflammation (n = 26), 2b) asymptomatic FCoV infection (n = 49), 2c) injection-site sarcoma (n = 19), 2d) postvaccination (n = 7), and 2e) specific pathogen free (n = 3). Standard descriptive analyses by group and empirical receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve estimation were performed. Ordinary logistic regression analysis was performed to derive an estimate of the continuous likelihood ratio to produce the posttest probability of disease for any combination of pretest probability and serum AGP value. The comparison of serum AGP levels in the different groups and the analysis of the ROC curve confirmed that serum AGP is a powerful discriminating marker for FIP. The Bayesian approach demonstrated that when the pretest probability of FIP is high, based on history and clinical signs (groups 1 or 2a), moderate serum AGP levels (1.5-2 mg/ml) can discriminate cats with FIP from others, while only high serum AGP levels (>3 mg/ml) can support a diagnosis of FIP in cats with a low pretest probability of disease (groups 2b to 2e).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Aust Vet J
                Aust. Vet. J
                10.1111/(ISSN)1751-0813
                AVJ
                Australian Veterinary Journal
                Blackwell Publishing Asia (Melbourne, Australia )
                0005-0423
                1751-0813
                August 2012
                05 June 2012
                : 90
                : 8 ( doiID: 10.1111/avj.2012.90.issue-8 )
                : 291-296
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Veterinary Pathology, Hygiene and Public Health, Unit of Veterinary General Pathology and Parasitology, University of Milan, Italy; saverio.paltrinieri@ 123456unimi.it
                Article
                AVJ948
                10.1111/j.1751-0813.2012.00948.x
                7159534
                22827622
                3d4799f3-9a38-4fc4-a7f2-4bb96e019549
                © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association

                This article is being made freely available through PubMed Central as part of the COVID-19 public health emergency response. It can be used for unrestricted research re-use and analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source, for the duration of the public health emergency.

                History
                : 9 October 2011
                Page count
                links-crossref: 0, links-pubmed: 0, Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 6, Words: 4791
                Categories
                Small Animals
                Small Animals
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                August 2012
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.8.0 mode:remove_FC converted:15.04.2020

                alpha‐1‐acid glycoprotein,cats,leucocytes,feline coronavirus,feline infectious peritonitis

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