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      Taxonomic innovations in South American Selaginella (Selaginellaceae, Lycopodiophyta): description of five new species and an additional range extension

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          Abstract

          Five Selaginella species (i.e, S. gioiae , S. papillosa , S. pubimarginata , S. rostrata , and S. xanthoneura ) from Neotropical rainforests of South America are described and illustrated as new, while S. surucucusensis , originally recorded only from Brazil, is redefined to account for species’ morphological characters throughout its expanded distribution range and also a novel illustration is provided for it. Inferred taxonomic affinities and conservation assessment are offered for species here treated. Selaginella gioiae is native to Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, and S. xanthoneura is so far only known in Colombia, whereas S. surucucusensis is now known to occur in Colombia and Venezuela in the north-central part of South America. These three species are included in the “ Selaginella flabellata group” based on their habit, stem shape, rhizophores position, and mega- and microspores color, and ornamentation. Selaginella papillosa , S. pubimarginata , and S. rostrata are native to Venezuela. Selaginella papillosa and S. pubimarginata morphologically belong in the “ Selaginella deltoides group” based on their habit, stem type, shape of lateral leaves and their indument type distributed on upper surface of the leaf lamina. On the other hand, S. rostrata is considered to be a member of the “ Selaginella microdonta group,” which is centered in the Guiana Highlands, based on its habit, stem type, and leaf size and shape, and for which a key to identify species is provided. Finally, all species threated here are classified in subg. Stachygynandrum based on their heteromorphic leaves, mostly quadrangular strobili, and monomorphic sporophylls shape (except for S. rostrata that has slightly dorsiventral and flattened strobili with somewhat heteromorphic sporophylls).

          Translated abstract

          Resumen

          Se describen e ilustran cinco nuevas especies de Selaginella (i.e, S. gioiae , S. rostrata , S. papillosa , S. pubimarginata , and S. xanthoneura ) de los bosques neotropicales de Suramérica, mientras que S. surucucusensis , originalmente descrita de Brasil, es redefinida para incorporar los caracteres morfológicos de la especie a lo largo de su rango de distribución expandido y también una nueva ilustración se provee para ella. Además, se incorporan discusiones sobre las afinidades taxonómicas y el estado de conservación de las especies aquí tratadas. Selaginella gioiae es nativa de Colombia, Ecuador y Perú, y S. xanthoneura se conoce actualmente sólo de Colombia, mientras que S. surucucusensis ahora se reporta también para Colombia y Venezuela, en la región Norcentral de Suramérica. Estas tres especies se incluyen dentro del “grupo de Selaginella flabellata ” debido a su hábito, tipo de tallo, posición de los rizóforos y color y ornamentación de las mega- y micrósporas. Selaginella papillosa , S. pubimarginata y S. rostrata se conocen sólo de Venezuela. Selaginella papillosa y S. pubimarginata pertenecen morfológicamente dentro del “grupo de Selaginella deltoides ”, en función de su hábito, tipo de tallo, forma de las hojas laterales y la clase y distribución de su indumento en la superficie superior de la lámina. Por otra parte, S. rostrata pertenece al “grupo de Selaginella nicrodonta ”, el cual se centra en el Escudo Guyanés y se caracteriza en función del hábito, tipo de tallo y forma y tamaño de las hojas de sus especies, las cuales pueden ser identificados mediante la clave que se provee. Finalmente, todas las especies aquí tratadas son clasificadas en el subg. Stachygynandrum , ya que poseen hojas heteromórficas, estróbilos cuadrangulares y esporofilos monomórficos (con la excepción de S. rostrata , la cual posee estróbilos ligeramente dorsiventrales y aplanados con esporofilos levemente heteromórficos).

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          Most cited references 16

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          A subgeneric classification of Selaginella (Selaginellaceae)

          The lycophyte family Selaginellaceae includes approximately 750 herbaceous species worldwide, with the main species richness in the tropics and subtropics. We recently presented a phylogenetic analysis of Selaginellaceae based on DNA sequence data and, with the phylogeny as a framework, the study discussed the character evolution of the group focusing on gross morphology. Here we translate these findings into a new classification.
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            Selaginellaceae

             A. JERMY (1990)
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              An analysis of the vegetative organs of Selaginella grandis Moore, together with some observations on abnormalities and experimental results.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PhytoKeys
                3
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F7FCE910-8E78-573F-9C77-7788555F8AAD
                PhytoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2011
                1314-2003
                2020
                04 September 2020
                : 159
                : 71-113
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Departamento de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad de Panamá, Apartado Postal 0824-00073, Panama Universidad de Panamá Panama Panama
                [2 ] Sistema Nacional de Investigación (SNI), SENACYT, Panama Sistema Nacional de Investigación Panama Panama
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Iván A. Valdespino ( iavaldespino@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: Angelo Troia

                Article
                55330
                10.3897/phytokeys.159.55330
                7486311
                Iván A. Valdespino

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                University of Panama and National Research System of Panama
                Categories
                Research Article
                Lycopodiophyta
                Identification Key
                Taxonomy
                Americas

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