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      Control of cystic echinococcosis: Background and prospects

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4

      Zoonoses and Public Health

      Wiley

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          Genetic variants within the genus Echinococcus identified by mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

          The pattern of species and strain variation within the genus Echinococcus is complex and controversial. In an attempt to characterise objectively the various species and strains, the sequence of a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1) gene was determined for 56 Echinococcus isolates. Eleven different genotypes were detected, including 7 within Echinococcus granulosus, and these were used to categorise the isolates. The 4 generally accepted Echinococcus species were clearly distinguishable using this approach. In addition, the consensus view of the strain pattern within E. granulosus, based on a variety of criteria of differentiation, was broadly upheld. Very little variation was detected within Echinococcus multilocularis. Remarkable intra-strain homogeneity was found at the DNA sequence level. This region of the rapidly evolving mitochondrial genome is useful as a marker of species and strain identity and as a preliminary indication of evolutionary divergence within the genus Echinococcus.
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            Prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis.

            Human cystic echinococcosis (hydatid disease) continues to be a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. Elimination is difficult to obtain and it is estimated that, using current control options, achieving such a goal will take around 20 years of sustained efforts. Since the introduction of current (and past) hydatid control campaigns, there have been clear technological improvements made in the diagnosis and treatment of human and animal cystic echinococcosis, the diagnosis of canine echinococcosis, and the genetic characterisation of strains and vaccination against Echinococcus granulosus in animals. Incorporation of these new measures could increase the efficiency of hydatid control programmes, potentially reducing the time required to achieve effective prevention of disease transmission to as little as 5-10 years.
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              Echinococcosis: Advances in the 21st Century

              SUMMARY Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by cestodes of the genus Echinococcus (family Taeniidae). This serious and near-cosmopolitan disease continues to be a significant public health issue, with western China being the area of highest endemicity for both the cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) forms of echinococcosis. Considerable advances have been made in the 21st century on the genetics, genomics, and molecular epidemiology of the causative parasites, on diagnostic tools, and on treatment techniques and control strategies, including the development and deployment of vaccines. In terms of surgery, new procedures have superseded traditional techniques, and total cystectomy in CE, ex vivo resection with autotransplantation in AE, and percutaneous and perendoscopic procedures in both diseases have improved treatment efficacy and the quality of life of patients. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, management, control, and prevention of CE and AE. Currently there is no alternative drug to albendazole to treat echinococcosis, and new compounds are required urgently. Recently acquired genomic and proteomic information can provide a platform for improving diagnosis and for finding new drug and vaccine targets, with direct impact in the future on the control of echinococcosis, which continues to be a global challenge.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Zoonoses and Public Health
                Zoonoses Public Health
                Wiley
                1863-1959
                1863-2378
                August 26 2019
                December 2019
                September 17 2019
                December 2019
                : 66
                : 8
                : 889-899
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Facultad de Veterinaria Universidad Nacional de La Pampa General Pico Argentina
                [2 ]Escuela de Veterinaria Universidad Nacional de Rio Negro Choele Choel Argentina
                [3 ]Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima Perú
                [4 ]University of Melbourne, Veterinary Clinical Centre Werribee Vic. Australia
                Article
                10.1111/zph.12649
                © 2019

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