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      Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water


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          The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

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          Ozonation of drinking water: part I. Oxidation kinetics and product formation.

          The oxidation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation can occur via ozone or OH radicals or a combination thereof. The oxidation pathway is determined by the ratio of ozone and OH radical concentrations and the corresponding kinetics. A huge database with several hundred rate constants for ozone and a few thousand rate constants for OH radicals is available. Ozone is an electrophile with a high selectivity. The second-order rate constants for oxidation by ozone vary over 10 orders of magnitude, between < 0.1 M(-1)s(-1) and about 7 x 10(9) M(-1)s(-1). The reactions of ozone with drinking-water relevant inorganic compounds are typically fast and occur by an oxygen atom transfer reaction. Organic micropollutants are oxidized with ozone selectively. Ozone reacts mainly with double bonds, activated aromatic systems and non-protonated amines. In general, electron-donating groups enhance the oxidation by ozone whereas electron-withdrawing groups reduce the reaction rates. Furthermore, the kinetics of direct ozone reactions depend strongly on the speciation (acid-base, metal complexation). The reaction of OH radicals with the majority of inorganic and organic compounds is nearly diffusion-controlled. The degree of oxidation by ozone and OH radicals is given by the corresponding kinetics. Product formation from the ozonation of organic micropollutants in aqueous systems has only been established for a few compounds. It is discussed for olefines, amines and aromatic compounds. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
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            Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

            Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Ozonation of drinking water: part II. Disinfection and by-product formation in presence of bromide, iodide or chlorine.

              Ozone is an excellent disinfectant and can even be used to inactivate microorganisms such as protozoa which are very resistant to conventional disinfectants. Proper rate constants for the inactivation of microorganisms are only available for six species (E. coli, Bacillus subtilis spores, Rotavirus, Giardia lamblia cysts, Giardia muris cysts, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts). The apparent activation energy for the inactivation of bacteria is in the same order as most chemical reactions (35-50 kJ mol(-1)), whereas it is much higher for the inactivation of protozoa (80 kJ mol(-1)). This requires significantly higher ozone exposures at low temperatures to get a similar inactivation for protozoa. Even for the inactivation of resistant microorganisms, OH radicals only play a minor role. Numerous organic and inorganic ozonation disinfection/oxidation by-products have been identified. The by-product of main concern is bromate, which is formed in bromide-containing waters. A low drinking water standard of 10 microg l(-1) has been set for bromate. Therefore, disinfection and oxidation processes have to be evaluated to fulfil these criteria. In certain cases, when bromide concentrations are above about 50 microg l(-1), it may be necessary to use control measures to lower bromate formation (lowering of pH, ammonia addition). Iodate is the main by-product formed during ozonation of iodide-containing waters. The reactions involved are direct ozone oxidations. Iodate is considered non-problematic because it is transformed back to iodide endogenically. Chloride cannot be oxidized during ozonation processes under drinking water conditions. Chlorate is only formed if a preoxidation by chlorine and/or chlorine dioxide has occurred. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                23 July 2015
                August 2015
                : 12
                : 8
                : 8658-8677
                [1 ]RIKILT - Wageningen UR (University and Research Centre), P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen, The Netherlands; E-Mail: ine.vanderfels@ 123456wur.nl
                [2 ]Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Biotechnology, Department of Industrial Biological Sciences, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University Campus Kortrijk, Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, Kortrijk B-8500, Belgium; E-Mails: imca.sampers@ 123456ugent.be (I.S.); sam.vanhaute@ 123456ugent.be (S.V.H.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: jen.banach@ 123456wur.nl ; Tel.: +31-317-481-963.
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 09 June 2015
                : 17 July 2015

                Public health
                water disinfection,fresh produce,cross-contamination,chlorine,chlorine dioxide,peracetic acid,ozone,disinfection by-products,water quality


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