1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Role of Endothelial Function and Inflammation in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors, with and without a History of Myocardial Infarction

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background: Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, in particular their lack of improvement after risk reduction, might better reflect advanced atherosclerosis than just the presence of risk factors. The aim of this study was to compare endothelial function and inflammatory parameters in high-risk patients who had no history of myocardial infarction and in patients in a stable phase after myocardial infarction. Methods: We compared endothelial function of the brachial artery, measured using high-resolution ultrasound, in 45 patients with hyperlipidaemia (Group 1), and in 45 patients in a stable period after myocardial infarction (Group 2). Forty-five healthy individuals served as a control group (Group 3). Results: Compared to patients with treated hyperlipidaemia, patients after myocardial infarction had lower values of total and LDL cholesterol (p = 0.015; 0.005) and homocysteine (p < 0.005), but marginally higher IL-6 levels (p = 0.1). Other measurements were comparable. However, flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery was significantly diminished in patients after myocardial infarction (10.6 ± 3.0; 5.9 ± 4.0; 14.0 ± 1.9% for Groups 1–3; ANOVA p = 0.0001; respectively). Conclusions: We found that patients with previous myocardial infarction have substantially lower endothelial function and increased some inflammatory parameters than patients with a similar level of atherosclerotic risk profile but without clinically evident coronary artery disease.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 23

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Long-term follow-up of patients with mild coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction.

          Coronary endothelial dysfunction is characterized by vasoconstrictive response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine. Although endothelial dysfunction is considered an early phase of coronary atherosclerosis, there is a paucity of information regarding the outcome of these patients. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the outcome of patients with mild coronary artery disease on the basis of their endothelial function. Follow-up was obtained in 157 patients with mildly diseased coronary arteries who had undergone coronary vascular reactivity evaluation by graded administration of intracoronary acetylcholine, adenosine, and nitroglycerin and intracoronary ultrasound at the time of diagnostic study. Patients were divided on the basis of their response to acetylcholine into 3 groups: group 1 (n=83), patients with normal endothelial function; group 2 (n=32), patients with mild endothelial dysfunction; and group 3 (n=42), patients with severe endothelial dysfunction. Over an average 28-month follow-up (range, 11 to 52 months), none of the patients from group 1 or 2 had cardiac events. However, 6 (14%) with severe endothelial dysfunction had 10 cardiac events (P<0.05 versus groups 1 and 2). Cardiac events included myocardial infarction, percutaneous or surgical coronary revascularization, and/or cardiac death. Severe endothelial dysfunction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is associated with increased cardiac events. This study supports the concept that coronary endothelial dysfunction may play a role in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in patients with essential hypertension.

            Endothelium regulates vascular tone by influencing the contractile activity of vascular smooth muscle. This regulatory effect of the endothelium on blood vessels has been shown to be impaired in atherosclerotic arteries in humans and animals and in animal models of hypertension. To determine whether patients with essential hypertension have an endothelium-dependent abnormality in vascular relaxation, we studied the response of the forearm vasculature to acetylcholine (an endothelium-dependent vasodilator) and sodium nitroprusside (a direct dilator of smooth muscle) in 18 hypertensive patients (mean age [+/- SD], 50.7 +/- 10 years; 10 men and 8 women) two weeks after the withdrawal of antihypertensive medications and in 18 normal controls (mean age, 49.9 +/- 9; 9 men and 9 women). The drugs were infused at increasing concentrations into the brachial artery, and the response in forearm blood flow was measured by strain-gauge plethysmography. The basal forearm blood flow was similar in the patients and controls (mean +/- SD, 3.4 +/- 1.3 and 3.7 +/- 0.8 ml per minute per 100 ml of forearm tissue, respectively; P not significant). The responses of blood flow and vascular resistance to acetylcholine were significantly reduced in the hypertensive patients (P less than 0.0001); maximal forearm flow was 9.1 +/- 5 ml per minute per 100 ml in the patients and 20.0 +/- 8 ml per minute per 100 ml in the controls (P less than 0.0002). However, there were no significant differences between groups in the responses of blood flow and vascular resistance to sodium nitroprusside. Because the vasodilator effect of acetylcholine might also be due to presynaptic inhibition of the release of norepinephrine by adrenergic nerve terminals, the effect of acetylcholine was assessed during phentolamine-induced alpha-adrenergic blockade. Under these conditions, it was also evident that the responses to acetylcholine were significantly blunted in the hypertensive patients (P less than 0.03). Endothelium-mediated vasodilation is impaired in patients with essential hypertension. This defect may play an important part in the functional abnormalities of resistance vessels that are observed in hypertensive patients.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Prognostic value of coronary vascular endothelial dysfunction.

              Whether patients at increased risk can be identified from a relatively low-risk population by coronary vascular function testing remains unknown. We investigated the relationship between coronary endothelial function and the occurrence of acute unpredictable cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and unstable angina) in patients with and without coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). We measured the change in coronary vascular resistance (DeltaCVR) and epicardial diameter with intracoronary acetylcholine (ACh, 15 micro g/min) to test endothelium-dependent function and sodium nitroprusside (20 micro g/min) and adenosine (2.2 mg/min) to test endothelium-independent vascular function in 308 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization (132 with and 176 without CAD). Patients underwent clinical follow-up for a mean of 46+/-3 months. Acute vascular events occurred in 35 patients. After multivariate analysis that included CAD and conventional risk factors for atherosclerosis, DeltaCVR with ACh (P=0.02) and epicardial constriction with ACh (P=0.003), together with increasing age, CAD, and body mass index, were independent predictors of adverse events. Thus, patients in the tertile with the best microvascular responses with ACh and those with epicardial dilation with ACh had improved survival by Kaplan-Meier analyses in the total population, as did those in the subset without CAD. Similar improvement in survival was also observed when all adverse events, including revascularization, were considered. Endothelium-independent responses were not predictive of outcome. Epicardial and microvascular coronary endothelial dysfunction independently predict acute cardiovascular events in patients with and without CAD, providing both functional and prognostic information that complements angiographic and risk factor assessment.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                December 2006
                31 May 2006
                : 107
                : 1
                : 1-7
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Angiology, University Clinical Centre, Hospital of Internal Medicine, and bInstitute of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia
                Article
                93573 Cardiology 2007;107:1–7
                10.1159/000093573
                16735792
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 47, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

                Comments

                Comment on this article