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      Evaluation of Pre- and Postdilutional On-Line Hemodiafiltration Adequacy by Partial Dialysate Quantification and On-Line Urea Monitor

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          Abstract

          On-line highflux hemodiafiltration (HDF) is a clinically interesting and effective mode of renal replacement therapy, which offers the possibility to obtain an increased removal of both small and large solutes. The fundamental role of urea kinetic monitoring to assess dialysis adequacy in conventional hemodialysis has been widely studied. Both direct measurement of the urea removed by the modified direct dialysate quantitation (mDDQ) based on partial dialysate collection (PDC) and dialysate-based urea kinetic modeling (DUKM) using urea monitor have been advocated. The validity of this assessment tool in the patients with on-line HDF remained unclear. The aims of this investigation were (1) to compare the delivered Kt/V, urea mass removal (UMR), solute removal index (SRI) and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) between pre- and postdilutional high-flux HDF; (2) to verify and compare the efficiency of pre- and postdilutional HDF using DUKM with on-line dialysate urea sensor, and mDDQ with partial dialysate collection. During both mode of HDF, the paired analysis urea removed and Kt/V showed no significant difference. Using mDDQ, mean values for predilutional mode were as follows: Kt/V 1.53 ± 0.01 UMR, 16.8 ± 0.3 g/session; urea clearance 178 ± 18 ml/min; SRI 75.5 ± 7.7%; urea distribution volume (V) 28.3 ± 1.2 liters; nPCR 1.34 ± 0.18 g/kg/day; on the other hand, mean values for postdilutional mode were Kt/V 1.58 ± 0.01; UMR 17.10 ± 0.28 g/session; urea clearance 184 ± 21 ml/min; SRI 77.2 ± 3.5%; urea distribution volume, 27.8 ± 1.5 liters; nPCR 1.34 ± 0.19 g/kg/day. The mean value of urea generation rate was 5.82 ± 1.12 mg/min during HDF. Our results showed that dialysis adequacy was achieved with both high-volume predilutional HDF and postdilutional HDF. These two modes of HDF provided similar and adequate small solute clearance. In addition, we found that on-line analysis of urea kinetics is a reliable tool for quantifying and assuring delivery of adequate dialysis.

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          The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

          Among patients with end-stage renal disease who are treated with hemodialysis, solute clearance during dialysis and nutritional adequacy are determinants of mortality. We determined the effects of reductions in blood urea nitrogen concentrations during dialysis and changes in serum albumin concentrations, as an indicator of nutritional status, on mortality in a large group of patients treated with hemodialysis. We analyzed retrospectively the demographic characteristics, mortality rate, duration of hemodialysis, serum albumin concentration, and urea reduction ratio (defined as the percent reduction in blood urea nitrogen concentration during a single dialysis treatment) in 13,473 patients treated from October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. The risk of death was determined as a function of the urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration. As compared with patients with urea reduction ratios of 65 to 69 percent, patients with values below 60 percent had a higher risk of death during follow-up (odds ratio, 1.28 for urea reduction ratios of 55 to 59 percent and 1.39 for ratios below 55 percent). Fifty-five percent of the patients had urea reduction ratios below 60 percent. The duration of dialysis was not predictive of mortality. The serum albumin concentration was a more powerful (21 times greater) predictor of death than the urea reduction ratio, and 60 percent of the patients had serum albumin concentrations predictive of an increased risk of death (values below 4.0 g per deciliter). The odds ratio for death was 1.48 for serum albumin concentrations of 3.5 to 3.9 g per deciliter and 3.13 for concentrations of 3.0 to 3.4 g per deciliter. Diabetic patients had lower serum albumin concentrations and urea reduction ratios than nondiabetic patients. Low urea reduction ratios during dialysis are associated with increased odds ratios for death. These risks are worsened by inadequate nutrition.
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            Solute transport characteristics in hemodiafiltration

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              BPU
              Blood Purif
              10.1159/issn.0253-5068
              Blood Purification
              S. Karger AG
              0253-5068
              1421-9735
              1999
              1999
              06 September 1999
              : 17
              : 4
              : 199-205
              Affiliations
              aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology Kuang Tien General Hospital, and bDepartment of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Chung Shan Medical and Dental College Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
              Article
              14396 Blood Purif 1999;17:199–205
              10.1159/000014396
              10494022
              © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Tables: 3, References: 32, Pages: 7
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/14396
              Categories
              Original Paper

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