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      Propylthiouracil-coated biodegradable polymer inhibited neointimal formation and enhanced re-endothelialization after vascular injury

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          Abstract

          Background

          The drug-eluting stent is a standard approach for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Propylthiouracil (PTU), an antithyroid drug, has been proven to suppress neointimal formation after balloon injury.

          Materials and methods

          This study used a biodegradable polymer coating with PTU to test its effects on platelet function, re-endothelialization, and neointimal formation after vascular injury. Electrospinning was used to fabricate hybrid stents and generate PTU-loaded nanofibers.

          Results

          PTU-eluting stents maintained a stable release of PTU for 3 weeks. The PTU-coated stent markedly decreased the neointimal formation induced by vascular injury in the descending aorta of rabbits. Moreover, the PTU coating reduced platelet adhesion on the surface of the biodegradable membrane, which was reflected by the decreased expression of adhesion molecule in PTU-treated endothelial cells. The PTU coating enhanced re-endothelialization in injured aortas. In vitro, PTU exerted less suppressive effect on the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells than on those of vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, treatment of endothelial cells with PTU induced phosphorylation (Ser1177) of endothelial nitric oxide synthase as well as its association with heat shock protein 90, supporting the protective role of PTU in endothelial function. The level of thyroid-stimulating hormone remained unchanged during the experimental period.

          Conclusion

          This study indicates that PTU can be released locally and steadily in injured aortas, with some local effects but without systemic effects. Furthermore, PTU-coated stents may have beneficial effects on neointimal formation, endothelial cell, and platelet functions.

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          Most cited references 24

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis.

          For the past 25 years NIH Image and ImageJ software have been pioneers as open tools for the analysis of scientific images. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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            Pathological correlates of late drug-eluting stent thrombosis: strut coverage as a marker of endothelialization.

            Late stent thrombosis (LST) after Cypher and Taxus drug-eluting stent placement has emerged as a major concern. Although the clinical predictors of LST have been reported, specific morphological and histological correlates of LST remain unknown. From a registry totaling 81 human autopsies of drug-eluting stents, 46 (62 lesions) had a drug-eluting stent implanted >30 days. We identified 28 lesions with thrombus and compared those with 34 of similar duration without thrombosis using computer-guided morphometric and histological analyses. LST was defined as an acute thrombus within a coronary artery stent in place >30 days. Multiple logistic generalized estimating equations modeling demonstrated that endothelialization was the best predictor of thrombosis. The morphometric parameter that best correlated with endothelialization was the ratio of uncovered to total stent struts per section. A univariable logistic generalized estimating equations model of occurrence of thrombus in a stent section versus ratio of uncovered to total stent struts per section demonstrated a marked increase in risk for LST as the number of uncovered struts increased. The odds ratio for thrombus in a stent with a ratio of uncovered to total stent struts per section >30% is 9.0 (95% CI, 3.5 to 22). The most powerful histological predictor of stent thrombosis was endothelial coverage. The best morphometric predictor of LST was the ratio of uncovered to total stent struts. Heterogeneity of healing is a common finding in drug-eluting stents with evidence of LST and demonstrates the importance of incomplete healing of the stented segment in the pathophysiology of LST.
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              Vascular inflammation and repair: implications for re-endothelialization, restenosis, and stent thrombosis.

              The cellular and molecular processes that control vascular injury responses after percutaneous coronary intervention involve a complex interplay among vascular cells and progenitor cells that control arterial remodeling, neointimal proliferation, and re-endothelialization. Drug-eluting stents (DES) improve the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention by modulating vascular inflammation and preventing neointimal proliferation and restenosis. Although positive effects of DES reduce inflammation and restenosis, negative effects delay re-endothelialization and impair endothelial function. Delayed re-endothelialization and impaired endothelial function are linked to stent thrombosis and adverse clinical outcomes after DES use. Compared with bare-metal stents, DES also differentially modulate mobilization, homing, and differentiation of vascular progenitor cells involved in re-endothelialization and neointimal proliferation. The effects of DES on vascular inflammation and repair directly impact clinical outcomes with these devices and dictate requirements for extended-duration dual antiplatelet therapy. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                2018
                21 March 2018
                : 13
                : 1761-1771
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cardiovascular Department, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan
                [2 ]Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan
                [3 ]Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wei-Jan Chen, Cardiovascular Department, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Fu-Shin Road Number 5, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, Tel +886 3 328 1200 ext 8162, Fax +886 3 327 1192, Email wjchen@ 123456adm.cgmh.org.tw
                Article
                ijn-13-1761
                10.2147/IJN.S145528
                5868636
                © 2018 Chang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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