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      A new species of Besleria (Gesneriaceae) from the Serranía El Pinche (Cauca), southwestern Colombia

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          Abstract

          A new species of the genus Besleria ( Gesneriaceae ), endemic to the department of Cauca, Colombia, is described and illustrated here. The new species, Besleria santaclarensis Clavijo & Sánchez-Taborda, was discovered in the Regional Protective Forest Reserve “Serranía El Pinche”, Cordillera Occidental of the Colombian Andes. B. santaclarensis is distinguished by the epedunculate inflorescences, usually in the leafless axils near the base, with up to eight orange flowers, and by the magenta calyx that covers 2/3 of the corolla.

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          Resumen

          Una nueva especie del género Besleria ( Gesneriaceae ), endémica del departamento del Cauca, Colombia, se describe e ilustra aquí. La nueva especie, Besleria santaclarensis Clavijo & Sánchez-Taborda, se descubrió en la Reserva Forestal Protectora Regional “Serranía El Pinche”, Cordillera Occidental de los Andes colombianos. B. santaclarensis se distingue por las inflorescencias epedunculadas, usualmente en las axilas de nudos sin hojas ubicados hacia la base, con hasta ocho flores anaranjadas por inflorescencia y cáliz magenta que cubre 2/3 de la corola.

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          Most cited references14

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          Temporal and spatial origin of Gesneriaceae in the New World inferred from plastid DNA sequences

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            Distinct Processes Drive Diversification in Different Clades of Gesneriaceae.

            Using a time-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis including 768 Gesneriaceae species (out of [Formula: see text]3300 species) and more than 29,000 aligned bases from 26 gene regions, we test Gesneriaceae for diversification rate shifts and the possible proximal drivers of these shifts: geographic distributions, growth forms, and pollination syndromes. Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures analyses found five significant rate shifts in Beslerieae, core Nematanthus, core Columneinae, core Streptocarpus, and Pacific Cyrtandra These rate shifts correspond with shifts in diversification rates, as inferred by Binary State Speciation and Extinction Model and Geographic State Speciation and Extinction model, associated with hummingbird pollination, epiphytism, unifoliate growth, and geographic area. Our results suggest that diversification processes are extremely variable across Gesneriaceae clades with different combinations of characters influencing diversification rates in different clades. Diversification patterns between New and Old World lineages show dramatic differences, suggesting that the processes of diversification in Gesneriaceae are very different in these two geographic regions.
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              On the protection of "protected areas".

              Tropical moist forests contain the majority of terrestrial species. Human actions destroy between 1 and 2 million km(2) of such forests per decade, with concomitant carbon release into the atmosphere. Within these forests, protected areas are the principle defense against forest loss and species extinctions. Four regions-the Amazon, Congo, South American Atlantic Coast, and West Africa-once constituted about half the world's tropical moist forest. We measure forest cover at progressively larger distances inside and outside of protected areas within these four regions, using datasets on protected areas and land-cover. We find important geographical differences. In the Amazon and Congo, protected areas are generally large and retain high levels of forest cover, as do their surroundings. These areas are protected de facto by being inaccessible and will likely remain protected if they continue to be so. Deciding whether they are also protected de jure-that is, whether effective laws also protect them-is statistically difficult, for there are few controls. In contrast, protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest and West Africa show sharp boundaries in forest cover at their edges. This effective protection of forest cover is partially offset by their very small size: little area is deep inside protected area boundaries. Lands outside protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest are unusually fragmented. Finally, we ask whether global databases on protected areas are biased toward highly protected areas and ignore "paper parks." Analysis of a Brazilian database does not support this presumption.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PhytoKeys
                3
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F7FCE910-8E78-573F-9C77-7788555F8AAD
                PhytoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2011
                1314-2003
                2020
                07 October 2020
                : 162
                : 71-80
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Fundación Ecohabitats, Popayán, Colombia
                [2 ] Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia
                [3 ] Grupo de Investigación Ecología y Diversidad Vegetal, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia
                [4 ] Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Apartado 7495, Bogotá, Colombia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Laura Clavijo ( lvclavijor@ 123456unal.edu.co )

                Academic editor: Ricardo Kriebel

                Article
                55891
                10.3897/phytokeys.162.55891
                7560508
                3d8d2234-16a3-4182-8956-b4547f35542b
                Jhon A. Sánchez-Taborda, Alejandro Zuluaga, Laura Clavijo

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Gesneriaceae
                Taxonomy
                Americas
                Colombia
                South America

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