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      The genus Melanconis (Diaporthales)

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          The genus Melanconis ( Melanconidaceae , Diaporthales ) in the strict sense is here re-evaluated regarding phylogenetic structure, taxonomy, distribution and ecology. Using a matrix of sequences from ITS, LSU, ms204, rpb2, tef1 and tub2, eight species are recognised and their phylogenetic positions are determined. Based on phylogenetic, morphological and geographical differentiation, Melanconis marginalis is subdivided into four subspecies. Melanconis italica is reduced to a subspecies of Melanconis marginalis . The two species Melanconis larissae from Betula sp. and M. pacifica from Alnus rubra are described as new. Melanconis alni and M. stilbostoma are lectotypified and M. alni , M. marginalis and M. stilbostoma are epitypified. All GenBank sequences deposited as Melanconis alni are shown to actually represent M. marginalis and those as M. marginalis belong to the newly described M. pacifica . Currently, Alnus and Betula are the sole host genera of Melanconis . All species and subspecies are (re-)described and illustrated. In addition, the neotypification of Melanconium pterocaryae is here validated.

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          Two divergent intragenomic rDNA ITS2 types within a monophyletic lineage of the fungus Fusarium are nonorthologous.

          The evolutionary history of the phytopathogenic Gibberella fujikuroi complex of Fusarium and related species was investigated by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences obtained from multiple unlinked loci. Gene phylogenies inferred from the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rDNA, nuclear 28S rDNA, and beta-tubulin gene were generally concordant, providing strong support for a fully resolved phylogeny of all biological and most morphological species. Discordance of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene tree is due to paralogous or xenologous ITS2 sequences. PCR and sequence analysis demonstrated that every strain of the ingroup species tested possesses two highly divergent nonorthologous ITS2 types designated type I and type II. Only the major ITS2 type, however, is discernable when PCR products are amplified and sequenced directly with conserved primers. The minor ITS2 type was recovered using ITS2 type-specific PCR primers. Distribution of the major ITS2 type within the species lineages exhibits a homoplastic pattern of evolution, thus obscuring true phylogenetic relationships. The results suggest that the ancestral ITS2 types may have arisen following an ancient interspecific hybridization or gene duplication which occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex and related species of Fusarium. The results also indicate that current morphological-based taxonomic schemes for these fungi are unnatural and a new classification is required.
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            A method for designing primer sets for speciation studies in filamentous ascomycetes

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              International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MycoKeys
                11
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:C004A564-9D6A-5F9F-B058-6A3815DFE9C3
                MycoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4057
                1314-4049
                2020
                02 March 2020
                : 63
                : 69-117
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Franz Schwackhöfer Haus, Peter-Jordan-Straße 82/I, 1190 Vienna, Austria University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna Austria
                [2 ] Division of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Wien, Austria University of Vienna Vienna Austria
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Walter M. Jaklitsch ( walter.jaklitsch@ 123456univie.ac.at )

                Academic editor: A. Miller

                Article
                49054
                10.3897/mycokeys.63.49054
                7062851
                Walter M. Jaklitsch, Hermann Voglmayr

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Austrian Science Fund 501100002428 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100002428
                Categories
                Research Article
                Ascomycota
                Diaporthales
                Melanconidaceae
                Sordariomycetes
                Molecular Systematics
                Phylogeny
                Taxonomy
                World

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