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      Speciation with gene flow: Evidence from a complex of alpine butterflies ( Coenonympha, Satyridae)

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          Until complete reproductive isolation is achieved, the extent of differentiation between two diverging lineages is the result of a dynamic equilibrium between genetic isolation and mixing. This is especially true for hybrid taxa, for which the degree of isolation in regard to their parental species is decisive in their capacity to rise as a new and stable entity. In this work, we explored the past and current patterns of hybridization and divergence within a complex of closely related butterflies in the genus Coenonympha in which two alpine species, C. darwiniana and C. macromma, have been shown to result from hybridization between the also alpine C. gardetta and the lowland C. arcania. By testing alternative scenarios of divergence among species, we show that gene flow has been uninterrupted throughout the speciation process, although leading to different degrees of current genetic isolation between species in contact zones depending on the pair considered. Nonetheless, at broader geographic scale, analyses reveal a clear genetic differentiation between hybrid lineages and their parental species, pointing out to an advanced stage of the hybrid speciation process. Finally, the positive correlation observed between ecological divergence and genetic isolation among these butterflies suggests a potential role for ecological drivers during their speciation processes.

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          Hybridization and speciation.

          Hybridization has many and varied impacts on the process of speciation. Hybridization may slow or reverse differentiation by allowing gene flow and recombination. It may accelerate speciation via adaptive introgression or cause near-instantaneous speciation by allopolyploidization. It may have multiple effects at different stages and in different spatial contexts within a single speciation event. We offer a perspective on the context and evolutionary significance of hybridization during speciation, highlighting issues of current interest and debate. In secondary contact zones, it is uncertain if barriers to gene flow will be strengthened or broken down due to recombination and gene flow. Theory and empirical evidence suggest the latter is more likely, except within and around strongly selected genomic regions. Hybridization may contribute to speciation through the formation of new hybrid taxa, whereas introgression of a few loci may promote adaptive divergence and so facilitate speciation. Gene regulatory networks, epigenetic effects and the evolution of selfish genetic material in the genome suggest that the Dobzhansky-Muller model of hybrid incompatibilities requires a broader interpretation. Finally, although the incidence of reinforcement remains uncertain, this and other interactions in areas of sympatry may have knock-on effects on speciation both within and outside regions of hybridization. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
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            Nonsynchronous Spatial Overlap of Lizards in Patchy Habitats

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                Author and article information

                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                03 May 2019
                June 2019
                : 9
                : 11 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.2019.9.issue-11 )
                : 6444-6457
                [ 1 ] Laboratoire d’Écologie Alpine UMR5553 CNRS‐Université Grenoble Alpes Grenoble France
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Thibaut Capblancq, LECA, 2233 Rue de la Piscine, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

                Email: thibaut.capblancq@

                © 2019 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 14, Words: 10789
                Funded by: Conseil general de l'Isère
                Funded by: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
                Award ID: INEE – APEGE
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                June 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.6.4 mode:remove_FC converted:18.06.2019

                Evolutionary Biology

                speciation, hindex, gene flow, evolutionary history, coenonympha


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