Effusive-constrictive pericarditis (ECP) is an uncommon pericardial syndrome. Careful echocardiographic examination may provide helpful information not only for diagnosing but also for managing ECP. ECP has various etiologies; however, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) infection has not been reported as a cause to date. Herein, we present a rare case of ECP caused by P. aeruginosa infection, which was followed up using echocardiography.
A 30-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a 2-mo history of cough, dyspnea, bloating, palpitations, and lower-extremity edema. The patient was initially diagnosed with pericardial effusion by transthoracic echocardiography. Drainage of pericardial effusion was performed to relieve the clinical symptoms. A follow-up echocardiogram showed that the pericardial effusion had decreased; however, the right atrial pressure continued to increase, and signs of constrictive pericarditis were observed upon a more comprehensive inspection. Therefore, the diagnosis of ECP was established based on the comprehensive pre- and post-pericardiocentesis echocardiographic findings. An urgent pericardectomy was subsequently performed, which significantly relieved the patient's clinical symptoms, and the signs of pericardial constriction on echocardiography improved. Pericardial effusion and pericardial culture showed growth of P. aeruginosa.