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      Thymoquinone Inhibits Virulence Related Traits of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 and Has Anti-biofilm Formation Potential

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to determine whether thymoquinone, the principal active ingredient in the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, could suppress certain virulence traits of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 which contribute to infection. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of thymoquinone significantly decreased motility, quorum sensing, and endotoxin production of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544 and biofilm formation of C. sakazakii 7-17. Thymoquinone substantially reduced the adhesion and invasion of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544 to HT-29 cells and decreased the number of intracellular bacterial cells within the RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Thymoquinone also repressed the transcription of sixteen genes involved in the virulence. These findings suggest that thymoquinone could attenuated virulence-related traits of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544, and its effects on other C. sakazakii strains and in vivo C. sakazakii infection need further investigation.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Bacterial quorum-sensing network architectures.

          Quorum sensing is a cell-cell communication process in which bacteria use the production and detection of extracellular chemicals called autoinducers to monitor cell population density. Quorum sensing allows bacteria to synchronize the gene expression of the group, and thus act in unison. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in quorum sensing with a focus on the Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing systems. We discuss the differences between these two quorum-sensing systems and the differences between them and other paradigmatic bacterial signal transduction systems. We argue that the Vibrio quorum-sensing systems are optimally designed to precisely translate extracellular autoinducer information into internal changes in gene expression. We describe how studies of the V. harveyi and V. cholerae quorum-sensing systems have revealed some of the fundamental mechanisms underpinning the evolution of collective behaviors.
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            Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa.

            The seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. (Ranunculaceae), commonly known as black seed or black cumin, are used in folk (herbal) medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases and conditions that include asthma, diarrhoea and dyslipidaemia. This article reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of N. sativa and its constituents. The seeds contain both fixed and essential oils, proteins, alkaloids and saponin. Much of the biological activity of the seeds has been shown to be due to thymoquinone, the major component of the essential oil, but which is also present in the fi ed oil. The pharmacological actions of the crude extracts of the seeds (and some of its active constituents, e.g. volatile oil and thymoquinone) that have been reported include protection against nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by either disease or chemicals. The seeds/oil have antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial and antineoplastic activity. The oil decreases blood pressure and increases respiration. Treatment of rats with the seed extract for up to 12 weeks has been reported to induce changes in the haemogram that include an increase in both the packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb), and a decrease in plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. The seeds are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. Two cases of contact dermatitis in two individuals have been reported following topical use. Administration of either the seed extract or its oil has been shown not to induce significant adverse effects on liver or kidney functions. It would appear that the beneficial effects of the use of the seeds and thymoquinone might be related to their cytoprotective and antioxidant actions, and to their effect on some mediators of inflammation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              Quorum-sensing in Gram-negative bacteria

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                28 November 2017
                2017
                : 8
                Affiliations
                1College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University , Yangling, China
                2College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University , Yangling, China
                3School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University , Xi'an, China
                4Xi'An Yurun Agricultural Products Global Sourcing Co., LTD. , Xi'an, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Lanming Chen, Shanghai Ocean University, China

                Reviewed by: Ariadnna Cruz-Córdova, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Mexico; Hongxia Wang, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States; Ali Abdolahzadeh Ziabari, Islamic Azad University of Lahijan, Iran; Ömer Akineden, Justus Liebig Universität Gießen, Germany

                *Correspondence: Xiaodong Xia foodscixiaodong@ 123456yahoo.com

                This article was submitted to Food Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2017.02220
                5712421
                Copyright © 2017 Shi, Yan, Sui, Sun, Guo, Chen, Jin, Peng, Ma and Xia.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 51, Pages: 10, Words: 7548
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research

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