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      Synthesis and Cytotoxic Property of Annonaceous Acetogenin Glycoconjugates

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          Abstract

          Background

          Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) are secondary metabolites produced by the Annonaceae family and display potent anticancer activity against various cancer cell lines. Squamocin and bullatacin are two examples of ACGs that show promising antitumor activity; however, preclinical data are not sufficient partly due to their being highly lipophilic and poorly soluble in water. These compounds also display high toxicity to normal cells. Due to these disadvantageous properties, the therapeutic potential of squamocin and bullatacin as antitumor agents has not been fully evaluated.

          Methods

          In order to enhance their water solubility and potentially improve their cancer targeting, squamocin and bullatacin were conjugated to a glucose or galactose to yield glycosylated derivatives by direct glycosylation or the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction (the click reaction). The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anticancer property against HeLa, A549 and HepG2 cancer cell lines using MTT assay.

          Results

          Nine glycosyl derivatives were synthesized and structurally characterized. Most of them show comparable in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa, A549 and HepG2 cancer cell lines as their parent compounds squamocin and bullatacin. It appears that the type of sugar residue (glucose or galactose), the position at which the sugar residue is attached, and whether or not a linking spacer is present do not affect the potency of these derivatives much. The solubility of galactosylated squamocin 13 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS, pH = 7) is greatly improved (1.37 mg/mL) in comparison to squamocin (not detected in PBS).

          Conclusion

          The conjugation of a glucose or galactose to squamocin and bullatacin yields glycosyl derivatives with similar level of anticancer activity in tested cell lines. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether or not these compounds show reduced toxicity to normal cells and their therapeutic potential as antitumor agents.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Annonaceous acetogenins: recent progress.

          The Annonaceous acetogenins are promising new antitumor and pesticidal agents that are found only in the plant family Annonaceae. Chemically, they are derivatives of long-chain fatty acids. Biologically, they exhibit their potent bioactivities through depletion of ATP levels via inhibiting complex I of mitochondria and inhibiting the NADH oxidase of plasma membranes of tumor cells. Thus, they thwart ATP-driven resistance mechanisms. This review presents the progress made in the chemistry, biology, and development of these compounds since December 1995.
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            Glucose conjugation for the specific targeting and treatment of cancer.

            Cancers of diverse origins exhibit marked glucose avidity and high rates of aerobic glycolysis. Increased understanding of this dysfunctional metabolism known as the Warburg effect has led to an interest in targeting it for cancer therapy. One promising strategy for such targeting is glycoconjugation, the linking of a drug to glucose or another sugar. This review summarizes the most salient examples of glycoconjugates, in which known cytotoxins or targeted anticancer therapeutics have been linked to glucose (or another glucose transporter substrate sugar) for improved cancer targeting and selectivity. Building on these examples, this review also provides a series of guidelines for the design and mechanistic evaluation of future glycoconjugates.
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              GLUT1 expression in malignant tumors and its use as an immunodiagnostic marker

              OBJECTIVE: To analyze glucose transporter 1 expression patterns in malignant tumors of various cell types and evaluate their diagnostic value by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: Glucose is the major source of energy for cells, and glucose transporter 1 is the most common glucose transporter in humans. Glucose transporter 1 is aberrantly expressed in several tumor types. Studies have implicated glucose transporter 1 expression as a prognostic and diagnostic marker in tumors, primarily in conjunction with positron emission tomography scan data. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for glucose transporter 1 was performed in tissue microarray slides, comprising 1955 samples of malignant neoplasm from different cell types. RESULTS: Sarcomas, lymphomas, melanomas and hepatoblastomas did not express glucose transporter 1. Forty-seven per cent of prostate adenocarcinomas were positive, as were 29% of thyroid, 10% of gastric and 5% of breast adenocarcinomas. Thirty-six per cent of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck were positive, as were 42% of uterine cervix squamous cell carcinomas. Glioblastomas and retinoblastomas showed membranous glucose transporter 1 staining in 18.6% and 9.4% of all cases, respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas displayed membranous expression, whereas adenocarcinomas showed cytoplasmic glucose transporter 1 expression. CONCLUSION: Glucose transporter 1 showed variable expression in various tumor types. Its absence in sarcomas, melanomas, hepatoblastomas and lymphomas suggests that other glucose transporters mediate the glycolytic pathway in these tumors. The data suggest that glucose transporter 1 is a valuable immunohistochemical marker that can be used to identify patients for evaluation by positron emission tomography scan. The function of cytoplasmic glucose transporter 1 in adenocarcinomas must be further examined.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                17 November 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 4993-5004
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Crop Germplasm Resources Preservation and Utilization, Agro-Biological Gene Research Center, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Guangzhou 510640, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Guangzhou 510650, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University , Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zi-Hua Jiang Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University , 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, OntarioP7B 5E1, CanadaTel +1-807-766-7171 Email zjiang@lakeheadu.ca
                Xiao-Yi Wei Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Xingke Road 723, Tianhe District, Guangzhou510650, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-20-37252538 Email wxy@scbg.ac.cn
                Article
                259547
                10.2147/DDDT.S259547
                7680094
                © 2020 Shi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, References: 42, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Research

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