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      Absorción de grasa proveniente de tres fuentes dietarias en ratas con diarrea inducida con lactosa

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          Abstract

          El déficit energético es uno de los principales contribuyentes al deterioro nutricional durante la diarrea y la grasa es el macronutriente con mayor valor energético, por ello buscamos identificar fuentes dietarias de grasa que presenten una mayor biodisponibilidad durante la diarrea. Con aceite de maíz, mantequilla o grasa de cerdo se prepararon tres dietas controles (con almidón) y tres dietas con 42.8% de lactosa para inducir la diarrea. El ensayo incluyó 48 ratas Sprague-Dawley de 28d de edad y peso inicial de 65.5± 5.2 g, distribuidas en 6 grupos que recibieron, durante 15d, las dietas mencionadas. En las ratas sin diarrea (controles), el tipo de grasa no afectó el consumo de dieta, el crecimiento ponderal, ni las pérdidas fecales. El menor crecimiento se observó en las ratas con diarrea, independientemente del tipo de grasa consumida y guardó relación con el bajo consumo de dieta. La absorción de grasas durante la diarrea fue: mantequilla 84%, grasa de cerdo 87% y aceite de maíz 91% y la dieta con este último se asoció a la menor excreción fecal y la mayor absorción de grasa durante los 15d. Considerando que las tres fuentes de grasa son de fácil adquisición y de amplia aceptación y dado que se recomienda el suministro de dietas con mayor densidad energética para el tratamiento nutricional de sujetos con diarrea, el aceite de maíz podría ser usado con mayores beneficios.

          Translated abstract

          Fat absorption from three different dietary sources in rats with lactose induced diarrhea. Low energy intake is one the most important factors related to nutritional wasting during diarrheal episodes and fat is the macronutrient with the highest energy value. So we intended to seek dietary fat sources, with the highest bioavailability during diarrheal episodes. Three basal (control) and three 42.8% lactose containing diets, used to induce diarrhea, were prepared with corn oil, butterfat or lard. The assay included 48 Sprague-Dawley rats, 28d of age, initial weights of 65.5± 5.2 g, distributed in 6 groups that received the diets during 15d. The different types of fat did not affect diet intake, weight gain or fecal losses in rats without diarrhea (control). Low weight gain was found in rats with diarrhea regardless of the type of fat consumed and was related to low diet consumption. Mean fat absorption during diarrhea was as follows: butterfat 84%, lard 87% and corn oil 91%. The latter was related to lower fecal losses and higher fat absorption during the 15d study. Considering that the three fat sources evaluated are easily purchased and widely accepted, and that nutritional management of subjects with diarrhea includes the intake of energy dense diets, it seems that the use of corn oil in these formulations could offer greater advantages.

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          Most cited references28

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          Report of the American Institute of Nurtition ad hoc Committee on Standards for Nutritional Studies.

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            Diarrhea as a cause and an effect of malnutrition: diarrhea prevents catch-up growth and malnutrition increases diarrhea frequency and duration.

            Diarrhea and malnutrition, alone or together, constitute major causes of morbidity and mortality among children throughout the tropical world. Data from northeast Brazil, taken with numerous other studies, clearly show that diarrhea is both a cause and an effect of malnutrition. Diarrheal illnesses impair weight as well as height gains, with the greatest effects being seen with recurrent illnesses, which reduce the critical catch-up growth that otherwise occurs after diarrheal illnesses or severe malnutrition. Malnutrition (whether assessed by impaired weight or height for age) leads to increased frequencies and durations of diarrheal illnesses, with a 37% increase in frequency and a 73% increase in duration accounting for a doubling of the diarrhea burden (days of diarrhea) in malnourished children. A multi-pronged approach focusing on those with prolonged diarrhea and severe malnutrition is suggested.
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              Food uses and health effects of corn oil.

              This review of corn oil provides a scientific assessment of the current knowledge of its contribution to the American diet. Refined corn oil is composed of 99% triacylglycerols with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 59%, monounsaturated fatty acid 24%, and saturated fatty acid (SFA) 13%. The PUFA is linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) primarily, with a small amount of linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) giving a n-6/n-3 ratio of 83. Corn oil contains a significant amount of ubiquinone and high amounts of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols (vitamin E) that protect it from oxidative rancidity. It has good sensory qualities for use as a salad and cooking oil. Corn oil is highly digestible and provides energy and essential fatty acids (EFA). Linoleic acid is a dietary essential that is necessary for integrity of the skin, cell membranes, the immune system, and for synthesis of icosanoids. Icosanoids are necessary for reproductive, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal functions and resistance to disease. Corn oil is a highly effective food oil for lowering serum cholesterol. Because of its low content of SFAs which raises cholesterol and its high content of PUFAs which lowers cholesterol, consumption of corn oil can replace SFAs with PUFAs, and the combination is more effective in lowering cholesterol than simple reduction of SFA. PUFA primarily lowers low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) which is atherogenic. Research shows that PUFA has little effect on high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) which is protective against atherosclerosis. PUFA generally improves the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C. Studies in animals show that PUFA is required for the growth of cancers; the amount required is considered to be greater than that which satisfies the EFA requirement of the host. At this time there is no indication from epidemiological studies that PUFA intake is associated with increased risk of breast or colon cancer, which have been suggested to be promoted by high-fat diets in humans. Recommendations for minimum PUFA intake to prevent gross EFA deficiency are about 3% of energy (en%). Recommendations for prevention of heart disease are 8-10 en%. Consumption of PUFA in the United States is 5-7 en%. The use of corn oil to contribute to a PUFA intake of 10 en% in the diet would be beneficial to heart health. No single source of salad or cooking oil provides an optimum fatty acid (FA) composition. Many questions remain to be answered about the relation of FA composition of the diet to various physiological functions and disease processes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                September 2001
                : 51
                : 3
                : 244-249
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Simon Bolivar Venezuela
                Article
                S0004-06222001000300005
                3ded913c-c303-4878-bc0b-7f4a3f30ffb3

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Diarrhrea,diet,fat,corn oil,butterfat,lard.,Diarrea,dieta,grasa,aceite de maíz,mantequilla,grasa de cerdo.

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