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      Revisión: Efectos cardiovasculares del ajo (Allium sativum)

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          Abstract

          El ajo ha sido utilizado médicamente desde muy antiguo e, incluso, todavía hoy forma parte de la medicina popular en muchas culturas. En los últimos tiempos se ha incrementado el número de estudios sobre la efectividad del ajo en la normalización de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y sobre el papel del mismo en el tratamiento de dichas enfermedades. Trabajos recientes señalan la existencia en el ajo de gran cantidad de sustancias, muchas de ellas azufradas, con importantes aplicaciones en el campo de la salud. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar los resultados de numerosos estudios referentes al ajo en relación con las enfermedades cardiovasculares. De alguno de ellos puede resumirse que el ajo puede promover la normalización de los lípidos plasmáticos, frenar la peroxidación lipídica, estimular la actividad fibrinolítica, inhibir la agregación plaquetaria, atenuar los cambios morfoestructurales de la pared vascular relacionado con el envejecimiento o la lesión aterosclerótica de la misma, y reducir la tensión arterial. Sin embargo otros estudios recientes no apoyan dichos resultados. Estos efectos positivos han despertado numerosas expectativas en cuanto al uso del ajo en la prevención y control de las enfermedades cardiovasculares. No obstante, dada la labilidad de algunos compuestos que contiene y la falta de acuerdo en los resultados obtenidos se sugiere moderación en su consumo. La variabilidad en su composición debida al tipo de recolección y envejecimiento junto con la modificación en la composición original por el enlatado, encapsulado y tratamiento industrial hacen necesaria la aplicación de una regulación que garantice el uso en forma y dosis adecuada de este alimento funcional.

          Translated abstract

          Review: Cardiovascular effect of garlic (Allium sativum). Garlic has been used for centuries, and even nowadays is part of popular medicine in many cultures. New data have increased the interest in garlic and its role in normalization and treatment of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Recent studies have shown the complex composition of garlic, containing many compounds, that present potential positive effect in the field of health. The aim of the present paper was to review results of some studies that have found a relationship between garlic and cardiovascular diseases. From some of them it can be summarized that garlic can normalize plasma lipid, check lipid peroxidation, stimulate fibrinolytic activity, inhibit platelet aggregation, smooth the thickening and structural changes of artery wall related to aging and atherosclerosis, and decrease blood pressure. However, some other studies do not support these benefits. The positive effects found have promoted many study projects, nevertheless, the extract lability and the lack of result consensus call for a moderate consumption of garlic and garlic extracts. The composition variation due to gathering and aging together with the changes occurring in canning and industrial treatment makes necessary the application of some norms in the production and consumption of this functional food in order to guarantee its use in adequate form and doses.

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          Most cited references110

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          Beyond cholesterol. Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity.

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            Evidence for the presence of oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbit and man.

            Three lines of evidence are presented that low density lipoproteins gently extracted from human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions (lesion LDL) greatly resembles LDL that has been oxidatively modified in vitro. First, lesion LDL showed many of the physical and chemical properties of oxidized LDL, properties that differ from those of plasma LDL: higher electrophoretic mobility, a higher density, higher free cholesterol content, and a higher proportion of sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine in the phospholipid fraction. A number of lower molecular weight fragments of apo B were found in lesion LDL, similar to in vitro oxidized LDL. Second, both the intact apo B and some of the apo B fragments of lesion LDL reacted in Western blots with antisera that recognize malondialdehyde-conjugated lysine and 4-hydroxynonenal lysine adducts, both of which are found in oxidized LDL; plasma LDL and LDL from normal human intima showed no such reactivity. Third, lesion LDL shared biological properties with oxidized LDL: compared with plasma LDL, lesion LDL produced much greater stimulation of cholesterol esterification and was degraded more rapidly by macrophages. Degradation of radiolabeled lesion LDL was competitively inhibited by unlabeled lesion LDL, by LDL oxidized with copper, by polyinosinic acid and by malondialdehyde-LDL, but not by native LDL, indicating uptake by the scavenger receptor(s). Finally, lesion LDL (but not normal intimal LDL or plasma LDL) was chemotactic for monocytes, as is oxidized LDL. These studies provide strong evidence that atherosclerotic lesions, both in man and in rabbit, contain oxidatively modified LDL.
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              Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study.

              To assess the effects of standardized garlic powder tablets on serum lipids and lipoproteins, glucose, and blood pressure. Forty-two healthy adults (19 men, 23 women), mean age of 52 +/- 12 years, with a serum total cholesterol (TC) level of greater than or equal to 220 mg/dL received, in a randomized, double-blind fashion, either 300 mg three times a day of standardized garlic powder in tablet form or placebo. Diets and physical activity were unchanged. This study was conducted in an outpatient, clinical research unit. The baseline serum TC level of 262 +/- 34 mg/dL was reduced to 247 +/- 40 mg/dL (p < 0.01) after 12 weeks of standard garlic treatment. Corresponding values for placebo were 276 +/- 34 mg/dL before and 274 +/- 29 mg/dL after placebo treatment. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was reduced by 11% by garlic treatment and 3% by placebo (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, serum glucose, blood pressure, and other monitored parameters. Treatment with standardized garlic 900 mg/d produced a significantly greater reduction in serum TC and LDL-C than placebo. The garlic formulation was well tolerated without any odor problems.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                September 2000
                : 50
                : 3
                : 219-229
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Complutense de Madrid España
                Article
                S0004-06222000000300002
                3df20259-9def-42b9-9a4e-28e96caa7954

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Garlic,composition,cholesterol,triglycerides,lipoprotein,fibrinolysis,platelet aggregation,blood pressure,Ajo,composición,colesterol,triglicéridos,lipoproteínas,fibrinolisis,agregación plaquetaria,presión arterial

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