A 56-year-old woman received a kidney transplant and presented subsequently with evidence of volume contraction, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Urinary sodium excretion was inappropriately high for the degree of volume contraction and urinary potassium excretion inappropriately low for the degree of hyperkalemia. Marked elevation of plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone suggested that the renal tubules were unresponsive to mineralocorticoids. The defect was shown to be transient. The mechanisms leading to the defect are discussed.