Françoise Meylan 1 , Eric T. Hawley 1 , Luke Barron 2 , Jillian L. Barlow 3 , Pallavi Penumetcha 1 , Martin Pelletier 1 , Giuseppe Sciumè 4 , Arianne C. Richard 1 , Erika T. Hayes 1 , Julio Gomez-Rodriguez 5 , Xi Chen 6 , William E. Paul 6 , Thomas A. Wynn 2 , Andrew N.J. McKenzie 3 , Richard M. Siegel 1
25 December 2013
The TNF-family cytokine TL1A (TNFSF15) costimulates T cells and promotes diverse T-cell dependent models of autoimmune disease through its receptor DR3. TL1A polymorphisms also confer susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease. Here we find that allergic pathology driven by constitutive TL1A expression depends on IL-13, but not T, NKT, mast cells or commensal intestinal flora. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) express surface DR3 and produce IL-13 and other type 2 cytokines in response to TL1A. DR3 is required for ILC2 expansion and function in the setting of T cell dependent and independent models of allergic disease. By contrast, DR3 deficient ILC2 can still differentiate, expand and produce IL-13 when stimulated by IL-25 or IL-33, and mediate expulsion of intestinal helminths. These data identify costimulation of ILC2 as a novel function of TL1A important for allergic lung disease, and suggest that TL1A may be a therapeutic target in these settings.