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      Artificial Dialysis Membranes: From Concept to Large Scale Production

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          Abstract

          The development of hemodialysis from an experimental concept to a routine medical therapy is closely related to research, manufacturing and availability of dialysis membranes. Collodion, a cellulose-trinitrate derivative, was the first polymer to be used as an artificial membrane and played a central role in further investigations and applications. Basic studies on the mechanism of solute transport through membranes, like diffusion, were done by A. Fick and T. Graham using collodion as a membrane material. In vivo dialysis in animals and humans was performed with collodion by J. Abel in the USA and G. Haas in Germany. Cellophane and Cuprophan membranes replaced collodion later, because of their better performance and mechanical stability. However, due to its alleged lack of hemocompatibility, membranes made from unmodified cellulose lost their market share. They have been replaced by modified cellulosic and synthetic dialysis membranes which show a better hemocompatibility than unmodified cellulose membranes. Most of the new membrane materials are also available in high-flux modifications and for this reason suitable as well for more effective therapy modes, such as hemodiafiltration and hemofiltration. The success of hemodialysis as a routine therapy is also the success of membrane development, because both, a reproducible membrane production and an unlimited availability of dialysis membranes have increased the number of dialyzed patients to about 1 million patients worldwide in 1999.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          AJN
          Am J Nephrol
          10.1159/issn.0250-8095
          American Journal of Nephrology
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-6855-5
          978-3-318-00128-0
          0250-8095
          1421-9670
          1999
          April 1999
          23 April 1999
          : 19
          : 2
          : 355-362
          Affiliations
          aFresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, and bAkzo Nobel Membrana, Wuppertal, Germany
          Article
          13476 Am J Nephrol 1999;19:355–362
          10.1159/000013476
          10213843
          © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 22, Pages: 8
          Product
          Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13476
          Categories
          History of Dialysis and Transplantation

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