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      The Recognition of Collagen and Triple-helical Toolkit Peptides by MMP-13 : SEQUENCE SPECIFICITY FOR BINDING AND CLEAVAGE *

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          Background: MMP-13 recognizes poorly-defined sequences in collagens.

          Results: MMP-13 binds key residues in the canonical cleavage site and another site near the collagen N terminus.

          Conclusion: MMP-1 and MMP-13 differ in their recognition and cleavage of collagen, which is regulated primarily through the Hpx domain of MMP-13.

          Significance: Our data explain the preference of MMP-13 for collagen II.


          Remodeling of collagen by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is crucial to tissue homeostasis and repair. MMP-13 is a collagenase with a substrate preference for collagen II over collagens I and III. It recognizes a specific, well-known site in the tropocollagen molecule where its binding locally perturbs the triple helix, allowing the catalytic domain of the active enzyme to cleave the collagen α chains sequentially, at Gly 775–Leu 776 in collagen II. However, the specific residues upon which collagen recognition depends within and surrounding this locus have not been systematically mapped. Using our triple-helical peptide Collagen Toolkit libraries in solid-phase binding assays, we found that MMP-13 shows little affinity for Collagen Toolkit III, but binds selectively to two triple-helical peptides of Toolkit II. We have identified the residues required for the adhesion of both proMMP-13 and MMP-13 to one of these, Toolkit peptide II-44, which contains the canonical collagenase cleavage site. MMP-13 was unable to bind to a linear peptide of the same sequence as II-44. We also discovered a second binding site near the N terminus of collagen II (starting at helix residue 127) in Toolkit peptide II-8. The pattern of binding of the free hemopexin domain of MMP-13 was similar to that of the full-length enzyme, but the free catalytic subunit bound none of our peptides. The susceptibility of Toolkit peptides to proteolysis in solution was independent of the very specific recognition of immobilized peptides by MMP-13; the enzyme proved able to cleave a range of dissolved collagen peptides.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Cloning, expression, and type II collagenolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-13 from human osteoarthritic cartilage.

          Proteolysis of triple-helical collagen is an important step in the progression toward irreversible tissue damage in osteoarthritis. Earlier work on the expression of enzymes in cartilage suggested that collagenase-1 (MMP-1) contributes to the process. Degenerate reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments, Northern blot analysis, and direct immunodetection have now provided evidence that collagenase-3 (MMP-13), an enzyme recently cloned from human breast carcinoma, is expressed by chondrocytes in human osteoarthritic cartilage. Variable levels of MMP-13 and MMP-1 in cartilage was significantly induced at both the message and protein levels by interleukin-1 alpha. Recombinant MMP-13 cleaved type II collagen to give characteristic 3/4 and 1/4 fragments; however, MMP-13 turned over type II collagen at least 10 times faster than MMP-1. Experiments with intact type II collagen as well as a synthetic peptide suggested that MMP-13 cleaved type II collagen at the same bond as MMP-1, but this was then followed by a secondary cleavage that removed three amino acids from the 1/4 fragment amino terminus. The expression of MMP-13 in osteoarthritic cartilage and its activity against type II collagen suggest that the enzyme plays a significant role in cartilage collagen degradation, and must consequently form part of a complex target for proposed therapeutic interventions based on collagenase inhibition.
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            Biochemical characterization of human collagenase-3.

            The cDNA of a novel matrix metalloproteinase, collagenase-3 (MMP-13) has been isolated from a breast tumor library (Freije, J. M. P., Dicz-Itza, I., Balbin, M., Sanchez, L. M., Blasco, R., Tolivia, J., and López-Otin, C. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16766-16773), and a potential role in tumor progression has been proposed for this enzyme. In order to establish the possible role of collagenase-3 in connective tissue turnover, we have expressed and purified recombinant human procollagenase-3 and characterized the enzyme biochemically. The purified procollagenase-3 was shown to be glycosylated and displayed a M(r) of 60,000, the N-terminal sequence being LPLPSGGD, which is consistent with the cDNA-predicted sequence. The proenzyme was activated by p-aminophenylmercuric acetate or stromelysin, yielding an intermediate form of M(r) 50,000, which displayed the N-terminal sequence L58EVTGK. Further processing resulted in cleavage of the Glu84-Tyr85 peptide bond to the final active enzyme (M(r) 48,000). Trypsin activation of procollagenase-3 also generated a Tyr85 N terminus, but it was evident that the C-terminal domain was rapidly lost, and hence the collagenolytic activity diminished. Analysis of the substrate specificity of collagenase-3 revealed that soluble type II collagen was preferentially hydrolyzed, while the enzyme was 5 or 6 times less efficient at cleaving type I or III collagen. Fibrillar type I collagen was cleaved with comparable efficiency to the fibroblast and neutrophil collagenases (MMP-1 and MMP-8), respectively. Unlike these collagenases, gelatin and the peptide substrates Mea-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 and Mca-Pro-Cha-Gly-Nva-His-Ala-Dpa-NH2 were efficiently hydrolyzed as well, as would be predicted from the similarities between the active site sequence of collagenase-3 (MMP-13) and the gelatinases A and B. Active collagenase-3 was inhibited in a 1:1 stoichiometric fashion by the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-3. These results suggest that in vivo collagenase-3 could play a significant role in the turnover of connective tissue matrix constituents.
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              Collagen fibril architecture, domain organization, and triple-helical conformation govern its proteolysis.

              We describe the molecular structure of the collagen fibril and how it affects collagen proteolysis or "collagenolysis." The fibril-forming collagens are major components of all mammalian connective tissues, providing the structural and organizational framework for skin, blood vessels, bone, tendon, and other tissues. The triple helix of the collagen molecule is resistant to most proteinases, and the matrix metalloproteinases that do proteolyze collagen are affected by the architecture of collagen fibrils, which are notably more resistant to collagenolysis than lone collagen monomers. Until now, there has been no molecular explanation for this. Full or limited proteolysis of the collagen fibril is known to be a key process in normal growth, development, repair, and cell differentiation, and in cancerous tumor progression and heart disease. Peptide fragments generated by collagenolysis, and the conformation of exposed sites on the fibril as a result of limited proteolysis, regulate these processes and that of cellular attachment, but it is not known how or why. Using computational and molecular visualization methods, we found that the arrangement of collagen monomers in the fibril (its architecture) protects areas vulnerable to collagenolysis and strictly governs the process. This in turn affects the accessibility of a cell interaction site located near the cleavage region. Our observations suggest that the C-terminal telopeptide must be proteolyzed before collagenase can gain access to the cleavage site. Collagenase then binds to the substrate's "interaction domain," which facilitates the triple-helix unwinding/dissociation function of the enzyme before collagenolysis.

                Author and article information

                J Biol Chem
                J. Biol. Chem
                The Journal of Biological Chemistry
                American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814, U.S.A. )
                29 August 2014
                9 July 2014
                9 July 2014
                : 289
                : 35
                : 24091-24101
                From the []Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Downing Site, Cambridge CB2 1QW, United Kingdom,
                the [§ ]Cardiff University Dental School, Dental Drive, Cardiff CF14 4XY, United Kingdom, and
                the []Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Hammersmith, London W6 8LH, United Kingdom
                © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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                Protein Synthesis and Degradation


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