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      Protein kinase C beta II upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 via mitochondrial activation in cultured endothelial cells

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          Abstract

          Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is closely linked with endothelial dysfunction. However, the effect of PKCβII on endothelial dysfunction has not been characterized in cultured endothelial cells. Here, using adenoviral PKCβII gene transfer and pharmacological inhibitors, the role of PKCβII on endothelial dysfucntion was investigated in cultured endothelial cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), p66shc phosphorylation, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte adhesion, which were inhibited by PKCβi (10 nM), a selective inhibitor of PKCβII. PMA increased the phosphorylation of CREB and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which were also inhibited by PKCβi. Gene silencing of CREB inhibited PMA-induced MnSOD expression, suggesting that CREB plays a key role in MnSOD expression. Gene silencing of PKCβII inhibited PMA-induced mitochondrial ROS, MnSOD, and ICAM-1 expression. In contrast, overexpression of PKCβII using adenoviral PKCβII increased mitochondrial ROS, MnSOD, ICAM-1, and p66shc phosphorylation in cultured endothelial cells. Finally, PKCβII-induced ICAM-1 expression was inhibited by Mito-TEMPO, a mitochondrial ROS scavenger, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial ROS in PKC-induced vascular inflammation. Taken together, the results suggest that PKCβII plays an important role in PMA-induced endothelial dysfunction, and that the inhibition of PKCβII-dependent p66shc signaling acts as a therapeutic target for vascular inflammatory diseases.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Mitochondrial dysfunction in atherosclerosis.

          Increased production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage, and progressive respiratory chain dysfunction are associated with atherosclerosis or cardiomyopathy in human investigations and animal models of oxidative stress. Moreover, major precursors of atherosclerosis-hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and even the process of aging-all induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Chronic overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species leads to destruction of pancreatic beta-cells, increased oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and dysfunction of endothelial cells-factors that promote atherosclerosis. An additional mechanism by which impaired mitochondrial integrity predisposes to clinical manifestations of vascular diseases relates to vascular cell growth. Mitochondrial function is required for normal vascular cell growth and function. Mitochondrial dysfunction can result in apoptosis, favoring plaque rupture. Subclinical episodes of plaque rupture accelerate the progression of hemodynamically significant atherosclerotic lesions. Flow-limiting plaque rupture can result in myocardial infarction, stroke, and ischemic/reperfusion damage. Much of what is known on reactive oxygen species generation and modulation comes from studies in cultured cells and animal models. In this review, we have focused on linking this large body of literature to the clinical syndromes that predispose humans to atherosclerosis and its complications.
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            Protein kinase C beta and prolyl isomerase 1 regulate mitochondrial effects of the life-span determinant p66Shc.

            The 66-kilodalton isoform of the growth factor adapter Shc (p66Shc) translates oxidative damage into cell death by acting as reactive oxygen species (ROS) producer within mitochondria. However, the signaling link between cellular stress and mitochondrial proapoptotic activity of p66Shc was not known. We demonstrate that protein kinase C beta, activated by oxidative conditions in the cell, induces phosphorylation of p66Shc and triggers mitochondrial accumulation of the protein after it is recognized by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Once imported, p66Shc causes alterations of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses and three-dimensional structure, thus inducing apoptosis. These data identify a signaling route that activates an apoptotic inducer shortening the life span and could be a potential target of pharmacological approaches to inhibit aging.
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              Linking endothelial dysfunction with endothelial cell activation.

               K K Liao (2013)
              The thin layer of cells that lines the interior of blood vessels, known as the endothelium, plays a complex role in vascular biology. The endothelium mediates blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil recruitment, hormone trafficking, and fluid filtration. Endothelial dysfunction, as defined by a lack of NO, has been linked to a variety of disease states, including atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Indeed, restoration of endothelial function is one of the earliest recognizable benefits of statin therapy. In 1995, James Liao and colleagues published a study in the JCI demonstrating that NO is a vascular protective factor that limits endothelial activation and prevents leukocyte adhesion to the vessel wall.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Korean J Physiol Pharmacol
                Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol
                KJPP
                The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology : Official Journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology
                The Korean Physiological Society and The Korean Society of Pharmacology
                1226-4512
                2093-3827
                July 2017
                26 June 2017
                : 21
                : 4
                : 377-384
                Affiliations
                Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 35015, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Byeong Hwa Jeon. bhjeon@ 123456cnu.ac.kr
                Article
                10.4196/kjpp.2017.21.4.377
                5507776
                Copyright © 2017 The Korean Physiological Society and The Korean Society of Pharmacology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: National Research Foundation of Korea, CrossRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003725;
                Award ID: NRF-2014R1A6A1029617
                Award ID: NRF-2016R1A6A3A11932015
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