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      Stimuli-responsive hybrid nanocarriers developed by controllable integration of hyperbranched PEI with mesoporous silica nanoparticles for sustained intracellular siRNA delivery

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          Abstract

          Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a highly potent drug in gene-based therapy with the challenge being to deliver it in a sustained manner. The combination of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and polycations in the confined pore space allows for incorporation and controlled release of therapeutic siRNA payloads. We hereby constructed MSNs with expanded mesopores and pore-surface-hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) tethered with redox-cleavable linkers that could carry a high payload of siRNA (120 mg·g −1). The developed nanocarriers were efficiently taken up by cancer cells and were subsequently able to escape to the cytoplasm from the endosomes, most likely owing to the integrated PEI. Triggered by the intracellular redox conditions, the siRNA was sustainably released inside the cells over a period of several days. Functionality of siRNAs was demonstrated by using cell-killing siRNA as cargo. Despite not being the aim of the developed system, in vitro experiments using cell-killing siRNAs showed that the efficacy of siRNA transfection was comparable to the commercial in vitro transfection agent Lipofectamine. Consequently, the developed MSN-based delivery system offers a potential approach to hybrid nanocarriers for more efficient and long-term siRNA delivery and, in a longer perspective, in vivo gene silencing for RNA interference (RNAi) therapy.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Knocking down barriers: advances in siRNA delivery

          Key Points RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental pathway in eukaryotic cells by which sequence-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is able to silence genes through the destruction of complementary mRNA. RNAi is an important therapeutic tool that can be used to silence aberrant endogenous genes or to knockdown genes essential to the proliferation of infectious organisms. Delivery remains the central challenge to the therapeutic application of RNAi technology. Before siRNA can take effect in the cytoplasm of a target cell, it must be transported through the body to the target site without undergoing clearance or degradation. Currently, the most effective synthetic, non-viral delivery agents of siRNA are lipids, lipid-like materials and polymers. Various cationic agents including stable nucleic acid–lipid particles, lipidoids, cyclodextrin polymers and polyethyleneimine polymers have been used to achieve the successful systemic delivery of siRNA in mammals without inducing significant toxicity. Direct conjugation of delivery agents to siRNA can facilitate delivery. For example, cholesterol-modified siRNA enables targeting to the liver. RNAi therapeutics have progressed to the clinic, where studies are being conducted to determine siRNA efficacy in treating several diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and respiratory syncytial virus. Moving forward, it will be important to pay close attention to the potential nonspecific immunostimulatory effects of siRNA. Modifications to siRNA can be used to minimize stimulation of the immune system, and an increased emphasis must be placed on performing proper controls to ensure that therapeutic effects are sequence-specific.
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            Mesoporous silica nanoparticles: synthesis, biocompatibility and drug delivery.

            In the past decade, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have attracted more and more attention for their potential biomedical applications. With their tailored mesoporous structure and high surface area, MSNs as drug delivery systems (DDSs) show significant advantages over traditional drug nanocarriers. In this review, we overview the recent progress in the synthesis of MSNs for drug delivery applications. First, we provide an overview of synthesis strategies for fabricating ordered MSNs and hollow/rattle-type MSNs. Then, the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and biotranslocation of MSNs are discussed in relation to their chemophysical properties including particle size, surface properties, shape, and structure. The review also highlights the significant achievements in drug delivery using mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their multifunctional counterparts as drug carriers. In particular, the biological barriers for nano-based targeted cancer therapy and MSN-based targeting strategies are discussed. We conclude with our personal perspectives on the directions in which future work in this field might be focused. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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              RNAi therapeutics: principles, prospects and challenges.

              RNA interference (RNAi) was discovered less than a decade ago and already there are human clinical trials in progress or planned. A major advantage of RNAi versus other antisense based approaches for therapeutic applications is that it utilizes cellular machinery that efficiently allows targeting of complementary transcripts, often resulting in highly potent down-regulation of gene expression. Despite the excitement about this remarkable biological process for sequence specific gene regulation, there are a number of hurdles and concerns that must be overcome prior to making RNAi a real therapeutic modality, which include off-target effects, triggering of type I interferon responses, and effective delivery in vivo. This review discusses mechanistic aspects of RNAi, the potential problem areas and solutions and therapeutic applications. It is anticipated that RNAi will be a major therapeutic modality within the next several years, and clearly warrants intense investigation to fully understand the mechanisms involved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                2016
                08 December 2016
                : 11
                : 6591-6608
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University
                [2 ]Laboratory of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
                [3 ]College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
                [5 ]Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi
                [6 ]Department of Pathology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jessica M Rosenholm, Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, FI-20520 Turku, Finland, Tel +358 2 215 3255, Email jessica.rosenholm@ 123456abo.fi
                Jixi Zhang, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 186 2331 6698, Email jixizhang@ 123456cqu.edu.cn
                Article
                ijn-11-6591
                10.2147/IJN.S120611
                5154729
                © 2016 Prabhakar et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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