It is currently accepted that Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is crucial in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer. Therefore, we developed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of Hp infection by the <sup>13</sup>C Urea Breath Test (<sup>13</sup>C UBT) in 52 hemodialysis patients, and we evaluated the efficacy of two consecutive eradication regimens in 23 positive patients with dyspepsia and/or on a transplantation list. The correlation between anti-Hp serology and <sup>13</sup>C UBT results was also analyzed in 34 patients who were followed up during 18 months. The Hp prevalence by <sup>13</sup>C UBT was 63.5% (33/52). The eradication rate after the first cycle of therapy (amoxicillin 500 mg/8 h and omeprazole 20 mg/12 h, 14 days) was 60.8% (14/23). After the second cycle (clarithromycin 500 mg/ 12 h plus omeprazole 20 mg/12 h, 14 days), the eradication rate reached 82.6% (19/23). The serological procedure showed a good correlation with <sup>13</sup>C UBT (about 80% sensitive and specific) when very restrictive diagnostic and eradication criteria were adopted. We conclude that an eradication rate higher than 80% can be reached after two consecutive cycles of dual therapy in hemodialysis patients. Anti-Hp serological tests must be cautiously interpreted in these patients.