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      Is iron deficiency modulating physical activity in COPD?

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          Abstract

          There is evidence that iron plays a key role in the adequate functioning of skeletal muscle. While it has been demonstrated that nonanemic iron deficiency (NAID) affects exercise tolerance and response to exercise training in patients with COPD, the impact on daily physical activities (DPAs) remains unknown. Eighteen COPD patients with NAID (ferritin <100 ng/mL or ferritin 100–299 ng/mL with a transferrin saturation <20%) and 18 COPD patients without this abnormality, matched for age, gender, and the degree of airflow limitation (control group), were enrolled to the study. The primary outcome was the level of DPA assessed by accelerometers. Patients were (mean [SD]) 66 (7) years and were mostly male (70%) and former smokers (52%). Their forced expiratory volume at 1 second was 41 (16)% predicted, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity was 47 (14)% predicted and oxygen arterial pressure reached 70 (11) mmHg. DPA and the number of steps per day were lower in NAID COPD patients compared with controls (physical activity level 1.39 vs 1.59, P<0.05; and 4,402 vs 6,975 steps/day, P<0.05, respectively). The percentage of patients with increased time spent sitting per day (>6 hours) was higher in patients with NAID compared with controls (73% vs 37%, P<0.05). In addition, the percentage of patients doing moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (>3 metabolic equivalents of task, at least 30 minutes) was lower in this group (66% vs 100%, P<0.05). The presence of iron deficiency was associated with reduced DPA in COPD patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate iron reposition and their impact on the level of physical activity in these patients.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2017 Report: GOLD Executive Summary.

          This Executive Summary of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD (GOLD) 2017 Report focuses primarily on the revised and novel parts of the document. The most significant changes include: 1) the assessment of COPD has been refined to separate the spirometric assessment from symptom evaluation. ABCD groups are now proposed to be derived exclusively from patient symptoms and their history of exacerbations; 2) for each of the groups A to D, escalation strategies for pharmacological treatments are proposed; 3) the concept of de-escalation of therapy is introduced in the treatment assessment scheme; 4) nonpharmacologic therapies are comprehensively presented and; 5) the importance of comorbid conditions in managing COPD is reviewed.
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            The Minimal Important Difference in Physical Activity in Patients with COPD

            Background Changes in physical activity (PA) are difficult to interpret because no framework of minimal important difference (MID) exists. We aimed to determine the minimal important difference (MID) in physical activity (PA) in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and to clinically validate this MID by evaluating its impact on time to first COPD-related hospitalization. Methods PA was objectively measured for one week in 74 patients before and after three months of rehabilitation (rehabilitation sample). In addition the intraclass correlation coefficient was measured in 30 patients (test-retest sample), by measuring PA for two consecutive weeks. Daily number of steps was chosen as outcome measurement. Different distribution and anchor based methods were chosen to calculate the MID. Time to first hospitalization due to an exacerbation was compared between patients exceeding the MID and those who did not. Results Calculation of the MID resulted in 599 (Standard Error of Measurement), 1029 (empirical rule effect size), 1072 (Cohen's effect size) and 1131 (0.5SD) steps.day-1. An anchor based estimation could not be obtained because of the lack of a sufficiently related anchor. The time to the first hospital admission was significantly different between patients exceeding the MID and patients who did not, using the Standard Error of Measurement as cutoff. Conclusions The MID after pulmonary rehabilitation lies between 600 and 1100 steps.day-1. The clinical importance of this change is supported by a reduced risk for hospital admission in those patients with more than 600 steps improvement.
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              Anemia and iron deficiency in COPD patients: prevalence and the effects of correction of the anemia with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and intravenous iron

              Background Little is known about iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The purposes of this study were: (i) To study the prevalence and treatment of anemia and ID in patients hospitalized with an exacerbation of COPD. (ii) to study the hematological responses and degree of dyspnea before and after correction of anemia with subcutaneous Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron therapy, in ambulatory anemic patients with both COPD and chronic kidney disease. Methods (i) We examined the hospital records of all patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) to assess the investigation, prevalence, and treatment of anemia and ID. (ii) We treated 12 anemic COPD outpatients with the combination of ESAs and IV-iron, given once weekly for 5 weeks. One week later we measured the hematological response and the severity of dyspnea by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results (i) Anemia and iron deficiency in hospitalized COPD patients: Of 107 consecutive patients hospitalized with an AECOPD, 47 (43.9%) were found to be anemic on admission. Two (3.3%) of the 60 non-anemic patients and 18 (38.3%) of the 47 anemic patients had serum iron, percent transferrin saturation (%Tsat) and serum ferritin measured. All 18 (100%) anemic patients had ID, yet none had oral or IV iron subscribed before or during hospitalization, or at discharge. (ii) Intervention outpatient study: ID was found in 11 (91.7%) of the 12 anemic ambulatory patients. Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct) and the VAS scale scores increased significantly with the ESAs and IV-iron treatment. There was a highly significant correlation between the ∆Hb and ∆VAS; rs = 0.71 p = 0.009 and between the ∆Hct and ∆VAS; rs = 0.8 p = 0.0014. Conclusions ID is common in COPD patients but is rarely looked for or treated. Yet correction of the ID in COPD patients with ESAs and IV iron can improve the anemia, the ID, and may improve the dyspnea.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2019
                11 January 2019
                : 14
                : 211-214
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pulmonology Department, Hospital del Mar, Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques (IMIM), Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), CIBERES, (ISCiii), Barcelona, Spain, darodriguez@ 123456psmar.cat
                [2 ]Cardiology Department, Hospital del Mar, Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques (IMIM), Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Diego A Rodríguez Chiaradía, Pulmonology Department, Hospital del Mar, Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques (IMIM), Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), CIBERES, (ISCiii), Passeig Maritim 25, 08003 Barcelona, Spain, Tel +34 93 248 3548, Fax +34 93 248 3425, Email darodriguez@ 123456psmar.cat
                Article
                copd-14-211
                10.2147/COPD.S182700
                6333152
                © 2019 Martín-Ontiyuelo et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Short Report

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, comorbidities, physical activity, iron, nutrition, chronic disease

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