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      Acute brain failure in severe sepsis: a prospective study in the medical intensive care unit utilizing continuous EEG monitoring

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          APACHE-acute physiology and chronic health evaluation: a physiologically based classification system.

          Investigations describing the utilization pattern and documenting the value of intensive care are limited by the lack of a reliable and valid classification system. In this paper, the authors describe the development and initial validation of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE), a physiologically based classification system for measuring severity of illness in groups of critically ill patients. APACHE uses information available in the medical record. In studies on 582 admissions to a university hospital ICU and 223 admissions to a community hospital ICU, APACHE was reliable in classifying ICU admissions. In validation studies involving these 805 admissions, the acute physiology score of APACHE demonstrated consistent agreement with subsequent therapeutic effort and mortality. This was true for a broad range of patient groups using a variety of sensitivity analyses. After successful completion of multi-institutional validation studies, the APACHE classification system could be used to control for case mix, compare outcomes, evaluate new therapies, and study the utilization of ICUs.
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            Recovery of motor function after stroke.

            The natural history of recovery of motor function after stroke is described using data from a 1-year community-based study in Auckland, New Zealand. Of 680 patients, 88% presented with a hemiparesis; the proportion of survivors with a persisting deficit declined to 71% at 1 month and 62% at 6 months after the onset of the stroke. At onset, there were equal proportions of people with mild, moderate, and severe motor deficits, but the majority (76%) of those who survived 6 months had either no or only a mild deficit. Recovery of motor function was associated with the stroke severity but not with age or sex; patients with a mild motor deficit at onset were 10 times more likely to recover their motor function than those with a severe stroke. Our results confirm the reasonably optimistic outcome for survivors of stroke and further suggest that recovery of motor function is confined to patients whose motor deficit at onset is either mild or moderate.
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              Delirium duration and mortality in lightly sedated, mechanically ventilated intensive care patients.

              To determine the relationship between the number of delirium days experienced by intensive care patients and mortality, ventilation time, and intensive care unit stay. Prospective cohort analysis. Patients from 68 intensive care units in five countries. Three hundred fifty-four medical and surgical intensive care patients enrolled in the SEDCOM (Safety and Efficacy of Dexmedetomidine Compared with Midazolam) trial received a sedative study drug and completed at least one delirium assessment. Sedative drug interruption and/or titration to maintain light sedation with daily arousal and delirium assessments up to 30 days of mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality. Multivariable analysis using Cox regression incorporating delirium duration as a time-dependent variable and adjusting for eight relevant baseline covariates was conducted to quantify the relationship between number of delirium days and the three main outcomes. Overall, delirium was diagnosed in 228 of 354 patients (64.4%). Mortality was significantly lower in patients without delirium compared to those with delirium (15 of 126 [11.9%] vs. 69 of 228 [30.3%]; p<.001). Similarly, the median time to extubation and intensive care unit discharge were significantly shorter among nondelirious patients (3.6 vs. 10.7 days [p<.001] and 4 vs. 16 days [p<.001], respectively). In multivariable analysis, the duration of delirium exhibited a nonlinear relationship with mortality (p=.02), with the strongest association observed in the early days of delirium. In comparison to 0 days of delirium, an independent dose-response increase in mortality was observed, which increased from 1 day of delirium (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.29; p<.001), 2 days of delirium (hazard ratio, 2.69; confidence interval, 1.58-4.57; p<.001), and ≥3 days of delirium (hazard ratio, 3.37; confidence interval, 1.92-7.23; p<.001). Similar independent relationships were observed between delirium duration and ventilation time and intensive care length of stay. In ventilated and lightly sedated intensive care unit patients, the duration of delirium was the strongest independent predictor of death, ventilation time, and intensive care unit stay after adjusting for relevant covariates.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Intensive Care Medicine
                Intensive Care Med
                Springer Nature
                0342-4642
                1432-1238
                April 2015
                March 13 2015
                : 41
                : 4
                : 686-694
                Article
                10.1007/s00134-015-3709-1
                25763756
                3e5bbbe5-df58-4d2e-a43d-5c90071297a9
                © 2015
                History

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