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      Glycoprofiling of cancer biomarkers: Label-free electrochemical lectin-based biosensors

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          Abstract

          Glycosylation of biomolecules is one of the most prevalent post- and co-translational modification in a human body, with more than half of all human proteins being glycosylated. Malignant transformation of cells influences glycosylation machinery resulting in subtle changes of the glycosylation pattern within the cell populations as a result of cancer. Thus, an altered terminal glycan motif on glycoproteins could provide a warning signal about disease development and progression and could be applied as a reliable biomarker in cancer diagnostics. Among all highly effective glycoprofiling tools, label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based biosensors have emerged as especially suitable tool for point-of-care early-stage cancer detection. Herein, we highlight the current challenges in glycoprofiling of various cancer biomarkers by ultrasensitive impedimetric-based biosensors with low sample consumption, low cost fabrication and simple miniaturization. Additionally, this review provides a short introduction to the field of glycomics and lectinomics and gives a brief overview of glycan alterations in different types of cancer.

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          Most cited references 141

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We report a naturally-occurring two-dimensional material (graphene that can be viewed as a gigantic flat fullerene molecule, describe its electronic properties and demonstrate all-metallic field-effect transistor, which uniquely exhibits ballistic transport at submicron distances even at room temperature.
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            The case for early detection.

            Early detection represents one of the most promising approaches to reducing the growing cancer burden. It already has a key role in the management of cervical and breast cancer, and is likely to become more important in the control of colorectal, prostate and lung cancer. Early-detection research has recently been revitalized by the advent of novel molecular technologies that can identify cellular changes at the level of the genome or proteome, but how can we harness these new technologies to develop effective and practical screening tests?
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              In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots.

              Quantum dots (QDs), tiny light-emitting particles on the nanometer scale, are emerging as a new class of fluorescent probe for in vivo biomolecular and cellular imaging. In comparison with organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, QDs have unique optical and electronic properties: size-tunable light emission, improved signal brightness, resistance against photobleaching, and simultaneous excitation of multiple fluorescence colors. Recent advances have led to the development of multifunctional nanoparticle probes that are very bright and stable under complex in vivo conditions. A new structural design involves encapsulating luminescent QDs with amphiphilic block copolymers and linking the polymer coating to tumor-targeting ligands and drug delivery functionalities. Polymer-encapsulated QDs are essentially nontoxic to cells and animals, but their long-term in vivo toxicity and degradation need more careful study. Bioconjugated QDs have raised new possibilities for ultrasensitive and multiplexed imaging of molecular targets in living cells, animal models and possibly in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                101682388
                45273
                Open Chem
                Open Chem
                Open chemistry
                2391-5420
                23 May 2016
                January 2015
                03 June 2016
                : 13
                : 1
                : 636-655
                Affiliations
                Department of Glycobiotechnology, Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-845 38 Bratislava, Slovakia
                Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O.Box 2713 Doha, Qatar
                Department of Glycobiotechnology, Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-845 38 Bratislava, Slovakia
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author: Jan.Tkac@ 123456savba.sk
                Article
                EMS68238
                10.1515/chem-2015-0082
                4892350
                27275016

                This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License.

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