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      Management of limited joint mobility in diabetic patients

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          Abstract

          Several rheumatologic manifestations are more pronounced in subjects with diabetes, ie, frozen shoulder, rotator cuff tears, Dupuytren’s contracture, trigger finger, cheiroarthropathy in the upper limb, and Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis in the lower limb. These conditions can limit the range of motion of the affected joint, thereby impairing function and ability to perform activities of daily living. This review provides a short description of diabetes-related joint diseases, the specific pathogenetic mechanisms involved, and the role of inflammation, overuse, and genetics, each of which activates a complex sequence of biochemical alterations. Diabetes is a causative factor in tendon diseases and amplifies the damage induced by other agents as well. According to an accepted hypothesis, damaged joint tissue in diabetes is caused by an excess of advanced glycation end products, which forms covalent cross-links within collagen fibers and alters their structure and function. Moreover, they interact with a variety of cell surface receptors, activating a number of effects, including pro-oxidant and proinflammatory events. Adiposity and advanced age, commonly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, are further pathogenetic factors. Prevention and strict control of this metabolic disorder is essential, because it has been demonstrated that limited joint motion is related to duration of the disease and hyperglycemia. Several treatments are used in clinical practice, but their mechanisms of action are not completely understood, and their efficacy is also debated.

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          Most cited references112

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          Prevalence and risk factors of a rotator cuff tear in the general population.

          Little information is available about the epidemiology of rotator cuff tears in a population-based study. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the true prevalence of rotator cuff tears regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms in the general population and to assess the relationship between tears and their backgrounds. A medical check-up was conducted for residents of a mountain village in Japan. The subjects consisted of 683 people (total of 1,366 shoulders), including 229 males and 454 females with a mean age of 57.9 years (range, 22-87). We examined their background factors, physical examinations and ultrasonographic examinations on both shoulders. Rotator cuff tears were present in 20.7% and the prevalence increased with age. Thirty-six percent of the subjects with current symptoms had rotator cuff tears, while 16.9% of the subjects without symptoms also had rotator cuff tears. Rotator cuff tears in the general population were most commonly associated with elderly patients, males, affected the dominant arm, engaged in heavy labor, having a history of trauma, positive for impingement sign, showed lesser active forward elevation and weaker muscle strength in abduction and external rotation. A logistic regression analysis revealed the risk factors for a rotator cuff tear to be a history of trauma, dominant arm and age. 20.7% of 1,366 shoulders had full-thickness rotator cuff tears in the general population. The risk factors for rotator cuff tear included a history of trauma, dominant arm and age. Level 3.
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            Collagen cross-links as a determinant of bone quality: a possible explanation for bone fragility in aging, osteoporosis, and diabetes mellitus.

            Collagen cross-linking, a major post-translational modification of collagen, plays important roles in the biological and biomechanical features of bone. Collagen cross-links can be divided into lysyl hydroxylase and lysyloxidase-mediated enzymatic immature divalent cross-links,mature trivalent pyridinoline and pyrrole cross-links, and glycation- or oxidation-induced non-enzymatic cross-links(advanced glycation end products) such as glucosepane and pentosidine. These types of cross-links differ in the mechanism of formation and in function. Material properties of newly synthesized collagen matrix may differ in tissue maturity and senescence from older matrix in terms of crosslink formation. Additionally, newly synthesized matrix in osteoporotic patients or diabetic patients may not necessarily be as well-made as age-matched healthy subjects. Data have accumulated that collagen cross-link formation affects not only the mineralization process but also microdamage formation. Consequently, collagen cross-linking is thought to affect the mechanical properties of bone. Furthermore,recent basic and clinical investigations of collagen cross-links seem to face a new era. For instance, serum or urine pentosidine levels are now being used to estimate future fracture risk in osteoporosis and diabetes. In this review, we describe age-related changes in collagen cross-links in bone and abnormalities of cross-links in osteoporosis and diabetes that have been reported in the literature.
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              Pathogenesis of tendinopathies: inflammation or degeneration?

              The intrinsic pathogenetic mechanisms of tendinopathies are largely unknown and whether inflammation or degeneration has the prominent role is still a matter of debate. Assuming that there is a continuum from physiology to pathology, overuse may be considered as the initial disease factor; in this context, microruptures of tendon fibers occur and several molecules are expressed, some of which promote the healing process, while others, including inflammatory cytokines, act as disease mediators. Neural in-growth that accompanies the neovessels explains the occurrence of pain and triggers neurogenic-mediated inflammation. It is conceivable that inflammation and degeneration are not mutually exclusive, but work together in the pathogenesis of tendinopathies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes
                Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes
                Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7007
                2013
                07 May 2013
                : 6
                : 197-207
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, University G d’Annunzio, Chieti-Pescara, Italy
                [2 ]BioCruces Health Research Institute, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Michele Abate, Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, University G d’Annunzio, Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66013 Chieti Scalo, Italy, Tel +39 0871 358 576, Fax +39 0871 358 969, Email m.abate@ 123456unich.it
                Article
                dmso-6-197
                10.2147/DMSO.S33943
                3656815
                23690694
                3e67e1eb-3de3-4c5e-b5f7-b2ceeb21e178
                © 2013 Abate et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                Categories
                Review

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                diabetes mellitus,joint mobility,diabetic complication,tendon
                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                diabetes mellitus, joint mobility, diabetic complication, tendon

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