Forkhead box protein O1 (FoXO1) is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of a wide variety of physiological process including glucose metabolism, lipogenesis, bone mass, apoptosis, and autophagy. FoXO1 dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of various diseases including metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, and tumors. FoXO1 activity is regulated in response to different physiological or pathogenic conditions by changes in protein expression and post-translational modifications. Various modifications cooperate to regulate FoXO1 activity and FoXO1 target gene transcription. In this review, we summarize how different post-translational modifications regulate FoXO1 physiological function, which may provide new insights for drug design and development.