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      Water-Solubilization of P(V) and Sb(V) Porphyrins and Their Photobiological Application

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      International Journal of Photoenergy

      Hindawi Limited

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          Abstract

          Porphyrins have been widely utilized as biochemical and biological functional chromophores which can operate under visible-light irradiation. Water-soluble porphyrins have been used as the drug for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodynamic inactivation (PDI). Although usual water-solubilization of porphyrins has been achieved by an introduction of an ionic group such as ammonium, pyridinium, sulfonate, phosphonium, or carboxyl to porphyrin ring, we proposed the preparation of water-soluble P and Sb porphyrins by modification of axial ligands. Alkyl (type A), ethylenedioxy (type E), pyridinium (type P), and glucosyl groups (type G) were introduced to axial ligands of Sb and P porphyrins to achieve water-solubilization of Sb porphyrin and P porphyrins. Here, we review their water-soluble P and Sb porphyrins from the standpoints of preparation, bioaffinity, and photosensitized inactivation.

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          Diffusion of univalent ions across the lamellae of swollen phospholipids.

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            Fluorescence probes used for detection of reactive oxygen species.

            Endogenously produced pro-oxidant reactive species are essential to life, being involved in several biological functions. However, when overproduced (e.g. due to exogenous stimulation), or when the levels of antioxidants become severely depleted, these reactive species become highly harmful, causing oxidative stress through the oxidation of biomolecules, leading to cellular damage that may become irreversible and cause cell death. The scientific research in the field of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated biological functions and/or deleterious effects is continuously requiring new sensitive and specific tools in order to enable a deeper insight on its action mechanisms. However, reactive species present some characteristics that make them difficult to detect, namely their very short lifetime and the variety of antioxidants existing in vivo, capable of capturing these reactive species. It is, therefore, essential to develop methodologies capable of overcoming this type of obstacles. Fluorescent probes are excellent sensors of ROS due to their high sensitivity, simplicity in data collection, and high spatial resolution in microscopic imaging techniques. Hence, the main goal of the present paper is to review the fluorescence methodologies that have been used for detecting ROS in biological and non-biological media.
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              Photodynamic therapy: a new antimicrobial approach to infectious disease?

              Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs a non-toxic dye, termed a photosensitizer (PS), and low intensity visible light which, in the presence of oxygen, combine to produce cytotoxic species. PDT has the advantage of dual selectivity, in that the PS can be targeted to its destination cell or tissue and, in addition, the illumination can be spatially directed to the lesion. PDT has previously been used to kill pathogenic microorganisms in vitro, but its use to treat infections in animal models or patients has not, as yet, been much developed. It is known that Gram-(-) bacteria are resistant to PDT with many commonly used PS that will readily lead to phototoxicity in Gram-(+) species, and that PS bearing a cationic charge or the use of agents that increase the permeability of the outer membrane will increase the efficacy of killing Gram-(-) organisms. All the available evidence suggests that multi-antibiotic resistant strains are as easily killed by PDT as naive strains, and that bacteria will not readily develop resistance to PDT. Treatment of localized infections with PDT requires selectivity of the PS for microbes over host cells, delivery of the PS into the infected area and the ability to effectively illuminate the lesion. Recently, there have been reports of PDT used to treat infections in selected animal models and some clinical trials: mainly for viral lesions, but also for acne, gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori and brain abcesses. Possible future clinical applications include infections in wounds and burns, rapidly spreading and intractable soft-tissue infections and abscesses, infections in body cavities such as the mouth, ear, nasal sinus, bladder and stomach, and surface infections of the cornea and skin.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Photoenergy
                International Journal of Photoenergy
                Hindawi Limited
                1110-662X
                1687-529X
                2015
                2015
                : 2015
                :
                : 1-12
                10.1155/2015/148964
                © 2015

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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