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      One calcium ion may suffice to open the tetrameric cardiac ryanodine receptor in rat ventricular myocytes.

      The Journal of Physiology

      metabolism, drug effects, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Rats, pharmacology, Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors, Patch-Clamp Techniques, cytology, Myocardium, physiology, Membrane Potentials, Male, In Vitro Techniques, Heart Ventricles, Heart, Electrophysiology, Cobalt, Cesium, Calcium Channels, L-Type, Calcium Channels, Calcium, Caffeine, Animals

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          Abstract

          1. The release of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum in response to Ca2+ entering through L-type Ca2+ channels was studied in isolated voltage clamped rat ventricular myocytes at room temperature using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicators fluo-3 and Oregon Green 488 Bapta 5N. 2. Depolarizations to positive potentials elicited fluo-3 Ca2+ transients with rates of rise that were linearly related to the magnitude of the peak measured Ca2+ current in the presence of Cs+-containing pipette solutions. 3. Further experiments utilizing prepulses to preactivate a constant number of channels also revealed a linear relationship between the Ca2+ transient rate of rise and the magnitude of entering Ca2+ current at positive potentials. Under these conditions as well, the maximal rates of rise of global myoplasmic Ca2+ transients were due primarily to Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum as revealed by effects of ryanodine and caffeine on the Ca2+ transients. Using such prepulses, linearity between the Ca2+ transient rate of rise and the magnitude of the peak Ca2+ current was found under a variety of pulse protocols. 4. Using one such pulse protocol, linearity between the Ca2+ transient rate of rise and the magnitude of the peak Ca2+ current was also found when Ca2+ currents assessed at one potential were reduced in magnitude during the onset of block by application of Co2+. Using the same pulse protocol, linearity between the Ca2+ transient rate of rise and the magnitude of the peak Ca2+ current was also found when use of Cs+ was avoided by blocking K+ currents with extracellular TEA and 4-aminopyridine. Linearity in the relationship between the Ca2+ transient rate of rise and the magnitude of the peak Ca2+ current was also found when Ca2+ transients were measured using the low affinity Ca2+ indicator Oregon Green 488 Bapta 5N in place of fluo-3. 5. These results appear to indicate that the cardiac ryanodine receptor is capable of being activated by only one calcium ion. Alternative interpretations of the data are discussed.

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          Journal
          10200424
          2269301

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