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      Início da vida sexual entre adolescentes (10 a 14 anos) e comportamentos em saúde Translated title: Sexual initiation among adolescents (10 to 14 years old) and health behaviors

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          Abstract

          OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de início da vida sexual até os 14 anos de idade e fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais relacionados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODOS: Em 2008, 4.325 adolescentes dos 5.249 pertencentes ao estudo de coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (1993) foram entrevistados. O início da vida sexual foi definido como primeira relação sexual ocorrida até os 14 anos. As informações foram obtidas através de questionários durante o acompanhamento de 2008, com entrevistas realizadas nos domicílios. As varáveis analisadas foram: cor da pele, índice de bens, escolaridade materna e do adolescente, uso experimental de cigarro e de álcool, episódio de embriaguez, uso de alguma droga ilícita pelo adolescente ou pelos amigos e envolvimento em brigas no último ano. Além dessas, foram analisados o uso de preservativos e contraceptivos, número de parceiros(as) e idade de iniciação sexual. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de iniciação sexual foi de 18,6%, sendo maior no sexo masculino, nos adolescentes com menor escolaridade, de baixo nível econômico e naqueles cujas mães tinham baixa escolaridade e tiveram filhos na adolescência. A prática sexual esteve relacionada às variáveis comportamentais analisadas. Na última relação sexual, 30% das entrevistadas não haviam usado métodos contraceptivos e 18% não usaram preservativos. Meninos referiram maior número de parceiros(as) sexuais do que meninas. CONCLUSÃO: Resultados apontam uma relação entre iniciação sexual (≤ 14 anos) e comportamentos vulneráveis à saúde. O não uso de preservativos e contraceptivos pode torná-los vulneráveis a experimentarem situações não desejadas. Estratégias educativas e socioculturais em saúde devem ser praticadas desde o início da adolescência.

          Translated abstract

          OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of sexual initiation until the age of 14 years old, as well as sociodemographic and behavioral factors. METHODS: In 2008, 4,325 from the 5,249 adolescents of the 1993 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, were interviewed. Sexual initiation was defined as the first intercourse up to the age of 14 years old. The information was obtained by interviewing adolescents in their houses, during the 2008 follow-up. The analyzed variables were: skin color, asset index, maternal and adolescents' schooling, experimental use of tobacco and alcohol, drunkenness episode, use of any illicit drug, illegal drug use by friends and involvement in fights during the past year. Use of condoms and contraceptive methods, number of partners and the age of sexual initiation were also analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of sexual initiation by the age of 14 was of 18.6%. Lower schooling, asset index and maternal education were related to higher prevalence of sexual initiation until the age of 14, as well as being male or being born to adolescent mothers. Sexual intercourse was also related to the behavioral variables analyzed. Among adolescent girls who had intercourse up to the age of 14, 30% did not use contraception and 18% did not use condoms in the last sexual intercourse. Boys reported a higher number of sexual partners than girls. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a relationship between sexual intercourse (≤ 14 years) and some health-risk behaviors. The non-use of condoms and contraceptives may make them vulnerable to experiencing unwanted situations. Education and sociocultural strategies for health should be implemented from the beginning of adolescence.

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          Most cited references 67

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          Development of food acceptance patterns in the first years of life.

           Leann Birch (1998)
          As young omnivores, children make the transition from the exclusive milk diet of infancy to consuming a variety of foods. They must learn to accept a set of the foods available in their environmental niche, and they 'come equipped' with a set of predispositions that facilitate the development of food acceptance patterns, constrained by predisposition and limited by what is offered to them. While children are predisposed to like sweet or salty foods and to avoid sour or bitter foods, their preferences for the majority of foods are shaped by repeated experience. The predispositions that shape food acceptance patterns also include neophobia and the predisposition to learn to prefer and accept new foods when they are offered repeatedly. In addition, the predisposition for associative conditioning affects children's developing food acceptance patterns, resulting in preferences for foods offered in positive contexts, while foods presented in negative contexts will become more disliked via the learning of associations with the social and environmental contexts. Children also learn to prefer energy-dense foods when consumption of those foods is followed by positive post-ingestive consequences, such as those produced when high-energy-density foods are eaten when hungry. Although children are predisposed to be responsive to the energy content of foods in controlling their intake, they are also responsive to parents' control attempts. We have seen that these parental control attempts can refocus the child away from responsiveness to internal cues of hunger and satiety and towards external factors such as the presence of palatable foods. This analysis suggests that taking a closer look at what children are learning about food and eating may provide clues regarding the formation of children's food acceptance patterns, and that this approach also suggests potential causative factors implicated in the aetiology of obesity and the emergence of weight concerns. Current data, although limited, suggest that child-feeding practices play a causal role in the development of individual difference in the controls of food intake, and perhaps in the aetiology of problems of energy balance, especially childhood obesity. These relationships should be pursued in future research.
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            Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study.

            This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city's hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings.
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              Early sexual initiation and subsequent sex-related risks among urban minority youth: the reach for health study.

              Since the 1980s, the age at which U.S. teenagers, especially minority youth, begin having sex has decreased. There is limited information on the relationship between early sexual initiation and subsequent risky sexual behaviors. A sample of 1,287 urban minority adolescents completed three surveys in seventh and eighth grade, and 970 completed a follow-up in 10th grade. Logistic regression was used to test the effects of timing of initiation on 10th-grade sexual behaviors and risks, adjusting for gender, ethnicity and age. At baseline, 31% of males and 8% of females reported sexual initiation; by the 10th grade, these figures were 66% and 52%, respectively. Recent intercourse among males increased from 20% at baseline to 39% in eighth grade; 54% reported recent sex and 6% had made a partner pregnant by 10th grade. Among females, recent intercourse tripled from baseline to eighth grade (5% to 15%); 42% reported recent sex and 12% had been pregnant by grade 10. Early initiators had an increased likelihood of having had multiple sex partners, been involved in a pregnancy, forced a partner to have sex, had frequent intercourse and had sex while drunk or high. There were significant gender differences for all outcomes except frequency of intercourse and being drunk or high during sex. Minority adolescents who initiate sexual activity early engage in behaviors that place them at high risk for negative health outcomes. It is important to involve parents and schools in prevention efforts that address sexual initiation in early adolescence and that target youth who continue to place themselves and their partners at risk.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                rbepid
                Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia
                Rev. bras. epidemiol.
                Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva (São Paulo )
                1415-790X
                March 2015
                : 18
                : 1
                : 25-41
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Pelotas Brazil
                [2 ] Universidad Industrial de Santander Colombia
                Article
                S1415-790X2015000100025
                10.1590/1980-5497201500010003
                4538852
                25651009
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                Health Policy & Services

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