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      Adaptación cultural al Quechua y análisis psicométrico del Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) en población peruana Translated title: Cultural adaptation to quechua and psychometric analysis of the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) in a peruvian population

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Objetivo . Traducir y adaptar culturalmente el Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) a tres variedades del quechua y analizar su validez, confiabilidad e invarianza. Materiales y métodos . 1) Fase de adaptación cultural: el PHQ-9 fue traducido del inglés a tres variantes del quechua (Central, Chanca, Cuzco-Collao) y traducido nuevamente al inglés, posteriormente expertos y grupos focales permitieron adaptar culturalmente las traducciones. 2) Fase psicométrica: se evaluó la uni-dimensionalidad del PHQ-9 adaptado mediante un Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (CFA), la confiabilidad se evaluó mediante consistencia interna (Alpha y Omega), y la invarianza de medida según variedades del quechua y variables sociodemográficas se evaluó empleando CFA multigrupos y modelos MIMIC (Múltiples Indicadores y Múltiples Causas). Resultados . Cada una de las adaptaciones del PHQ-9 a las tres variedades de quechua reportaron ítems claros y culturalmente equivalentes. Posteriormente, con 970 datos de quechuahablantes adultos varones y mujeres, el modelo general unidimensional reportó un ajuste adecuado (índice de ajuste comparativo: 0,990, índice de Tucker-Lewis: 0,987, residuo estandarizado cuadrático medio: 0,048, raíz del error cuadrático medio de aproximación: 0,071), lo mismo ocurrió para cada variedad del quechua. La confiabilidad fue alta para todas las variedades (α = 0,865 - 0,915; ω = 0,833 - 0,881). Los resultados del CFA multigrupos y modelos MIMIC confirmaron invarianza de medida según variante del quechua, sexo, residencia, edad, estado civil y nivel educativo. Conclusiones . Las adaptaciones del PHQ-9 a Quechua Central, Chanca y Cuzco-Collao ofrecen una medición válida, confiable e invariante, confirmando que se pueden hacer comparaciones en los grupos evaluados. Su uso beneficiará a la investigación y a la atención en salud mental de poblaciones quechuahablantes.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT Objective . To translate and culturally adapt the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to three varieties of Quechua and analyse their validity, reliability, and measurement invariance. Materials and methods . 1) Cultural adaptation phase: the PHQ-9 was translated from English into three variants of Quechua (Central, Chanca, Cuzco-Collao) and translated again into English. Then, experts and focus groups allowed the translations to be culturally adapted. 2) Psychometric phase: the unidimensionality of the adapted PHQ-9 was evaluated by using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), reliability was evaluated by internal consistency (Alpha and Omega), and measurement invariance according to Quechua varieties and sociodemographic variables was evaluated by using CFA, multigroups and MIMIC models (Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause). Results . Each of the adaptations of the PHQ-9 to the three Quechua varieties reported clear and culturally equivalent items. Subsequently, data from 970 Quechua-speaking adult men and women were analyzed. The general one-dimensional model reported an adequate fit (Comparative fit index = 0.990, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.987, Standardized root mean squared residual= 0.048, Root mean squared error of approximation=0.071); each of the Quechua varieties also showed an adequate fit. Reliability was high for all varieties (α = 0.865 - 0.915; ω = 0.833 - 0.881). The results of the multigroup CFA and MIMIC models confirmed measurement invariance according to Quechua variant, sex, residence, age, marital status and educational level. Conclusions . The PHQ-9 adaptations to Central Quechua, Chanca and Cuzco-Collao offer a valid, reliable and invariant measurement, confirming that comparisons can be made between the evaluated groups. Its use will benefit mental health research and care for Quechua-speaking populations.

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          The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure.

          While considerable attention has focused on improving the detection of depression, assessment of severity is also important in guiding treatment decisions. Therefore, we examined the validity of a brief, new measure of depression severity. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a self-administered version of the PRIME-MD diagnostic instrument for common mental disorders. The PHQ-9 is the depression module, which scores each of the 9 DSM-IV criteria as "0" (not at all) to "3" (nearly every day). The PHQ-9 was completed by 6,000 patients in 8 primary care clinics and 7 obstetrics-gynecology clinics. Construct validity was assessed using the 20-item Short-Form General Health Survey, self-reported sick days and clinic visits, and symptom-related difficulty. Criterion validity was assessed against an independent structured mental health professional (MHP) interview in a sample of 580 patients. As PHQ-9 depression severity increased, there was a substantial decrease in functional status on all 6 SF-20 subscales. Also, symptom-related difficulty, sick days, and health care utilization increased. Using the MHP reinterview as the criterion standard, a PHQ-9 score > or =10 had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 88% for major depression. PHQ-9 scores of 5, 10, 15, and 20 represented mild, moderate, moderately severe, and severe depression, respectively. Results were similar in the primary care and obstetrics-gynecology samples. In addition to making criteria-based diagnoses of depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 is also a reliable and valid measure of depression severity. These characteristics plus its brevity make the PHQ-9 a useful clinical and research tool.
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              Evaluating Goodness-of-Fit Indexes for Testing Measurement Invariance

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rins
                Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica
                Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica
                Instituto Nacional de Salud (Lima, , Peru )
                1726-4634
                September 2023
                : 40
                : 3
                : 267-277
                Affiliations
                [3] Lima orgnameUniversidad Peruana Unión orgdiv1Escuela Profesional de Psicología Peru
                [5] Ayacucho orgnameInstitución Educativa N° 38848 Pucara-Uchuraccay Perú
                [10] Londres orgnameUniversity College London orgdiv1Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health United Kingdom
                [8] Lima orgnameUniversidad Sedes Sapientiae Perú
                [1] Piura orgnameUniversidad César Vallejo orgdiv1Escuela de Medicina Peru
                [2] Huaraz Ancash orgnameUniversidad Nacional Santiago Antúnez de Mayolo Peru
                [4] Ayacucho orgnameEscuela de Educación superior pedagógico José Salvador Cavero Ovalle Perú
                [7] Chimbote orgnameInstituto de Investigación, Capacitación y Desarrollo Psicosocial y Educativo PSYCOPERU Perú
                [9] Lima Lima orgnameUniversidad Privada Norbert Wiener Peru
                [6] Chimbote orgnameUniversidad Tecnológica del Perú Peru
                Article
                S1726-46342023000300267 S1726-4634(23)04000300267
                10.17843/rpmesp.2023.403.12571
                3e91cee7-57cc-4266-92ec-7c520bdbaa48

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 06 September 2023
                : 23 January 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 11
                Product

                SciELO Public Health

                Categories
                Artículo original

                Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente,Patient Health Questionnaire,depression,Indigenous Peoples,Psychometrics,Depresión,Pueblos Indígenas,Psicometría

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