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      Understanding Identity Changes in Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis

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          Abstract

          Background and Objective

          Experiencing psychosis can be associated with changes in how people see themselves as individuals and in relation to others (ie, changes in their identity). However, identity changes receive little attention in treatment, possibly due to a lack of clarity or consensus around what identity change means in people with psychosis. We aimed to create a conceptual framework synthesizing how identity changes are understood in the psychosis literature.

          Methods

          Electronic databases were searched up to April 2020. Studies about identity changes among people with psychotic disorders were analyzed using narrative synthesis by a collaborative review team, including researchers from different disciplines, clinicians, and people who have experienced psychosis.

          Results

          Of 10 389 studies screened, 59 were eligible. Identity changes are understood in 5 ways as (1) characteristics of psychosis, (2) consequences of altered cognitive functioning, (3) consequences of internalized stigma, (4) consequences of lost roles and relationships, and (5) reflections of personal growth. These 5 understandings are not mutually exclusive. Across a heterogeneous literature, identity changes were mostly framed in terms of loss.

          Conclusions

          Our conceptual framework, comprising 5 understandings, highlights the complexity of studying identity changes and suggests important implications for practice and research. For clinicians, this framework can inform new therapeutic approaches where the experience and impact of identity changes are acknowledged and addressed as part of treatment. For researchers, the conceptual framework offers a way of locating their understandings of identity changes when undertaking research in this area.

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          Most cited references 174

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          Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.

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            Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews

            Background There is a growing recognition of the value of synthesising qualitative research in the evidence base in order to facilitate effective and appropriate health care. In response to this, methods for undertaking these syntheses are currently being developed. Thematic analysis is a method that is often used to analyse data in primary qualitative research. This paper reports on the use of this type of analysis in systematic reviews to bring together and integrate the findings of multiple qualitative studies. Methods We describe thematic synthesis, outline several steps for its conduct and illustrate the process and outcome of this approach using a completed review of health promotion research. Thematic synthesis has three stages: the coding of text 'line-by-line'; the development of 'descriptive themes'; and the generation of 'analytical themes'. While the development of descriptive themes remains 'close' to the primary studies, the analytical themes represent a stage of interpretation whereby the reviewers 'go beyond' the primary studies and generate new interpretive constructs, explanations or hypotheses. The use of computer software can facilitate this method of synthesis; detailed guidance is given on how this can be achieved. Results We used thematic synthesis to combine the studies of children's views and identified key themes to explore in the intervention studies. Most interventions were based in school and often combined learning about health benefits with 'hands-on' experience. The studies of children's views suggested that fruit and vegetables should be treated in different ways, and that messages should not focus on health warnings. Interventions that were in line with these suggestions tended to be more effective. Thematic synthesis enabled us to stay 'close' to the results of the primary studies, synthesising them in a transparent way, and facilitating the explicit production of new concepts and hypotheses. Conclusion We compare thematic synthesis to other methods for the synthesis of qualitative research, discussing issues of context and rigour. Thematic synthesis is presented as a tried and tested method that preserves an explicit and transparent link between conclusions and the text of primary studies; as such it preserves principles that have traditionally been important to systematic reviewing.
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              A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: methodology and effect sizes.

              Cognitive remediation therapy for schizophrenia was developed to treat cognitive problems that affect functioning, but the treatment effects may depend on the type of trial methodology adopted. The present meta-analysis will determine the effects of treatment and whether study method or potential moderators influence the estimates. Electronic databases were searched up to June 2009 using variants of the key words "cognitive," "training," "remediation," "clinical trial," and "schizophrenia." Key researchers were contacted to ensure that all studies meeting the criteria were included. This produced 109 reports of 40 studies in which ≥70% of participants had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, all of whom received standard care. There was a comparison group and allocation procedure in these studies. Data were available to calculate effect sizes on cognition and/or functioning. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers with excellent reliability. Methodological moderators were extracted through the Clinical Trials Assessment Measure and verified by authors in 94% of cases. The meta-analysis (2,104 participants) yielded durable effects on global cognition and functioning. The symptom effect was small and disappeared at follow-up assessment. No treatment element (remediation approach, duration, computer use, etc.) was associated with cognitive outcome. Cognitive remediation therapy was more effective when patients were clinically stable. Significantly stronger effects on functioning were found when cognitive remediation therapy was provided together with other psychiatric rehabilitation, and a much larger effect was present when a strategic approach was adopted together with adjunctive rehabilitation. Despite variability in methodological rigor, this did not moderate any of the therapy effects, and even in the most rigorous studies there were similar small-to-moderate effects. Cognitive remediation benefits people with schizophrenia, and when combined with psychiatric rehabilitation, this benefit generalizes to functioning, relative to rehabilitation alone. These benefits cannot be attributed to poor study methods.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Schizophr Bull
                Schizophr Bull
                schbul
                Schizophrenia Bulletin
                Oxford University Press (US )
                0586-7614
                1745-1701
                March 2021
                29 September 2020
                29 September 2020
                : 47
                : 2
                : 309-322
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, WHO Collaboration Centre, Queen Mary University of London , London, UK
                [2 ] Department of Primary Care and Mental health, Institute of Population Health, University of Liverpool , Liverpool, UK
                [3 ] Department of Biological and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London , London, UK
                [4 ] Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick , Coventry, UK
                Author notes
                To whom correspondence should be addressed; Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, Newham Centre for Mental Health, London E13 8SP, UK; tel: +44 020 7540 4380 (ext.: 2308), fax: +44 020 7540 4380, e-mail: m.conneelymcinerney@ 123456qmul.ac.uk
                Article
                sbaa124
                10.1093/schbul/sbaa124
                7965068
                32989443
                3e95e498-bc60-4370-932f-071725acc9f1
                © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Economic and Social Research Council, DOI 10.13039/501100000269;
                Funded by: Queen Mary University of London, DOI 10.13039/100009148;
                Categories
                Regular Articles
                AcademicSubjects/MED00810

                Neurology

                identity, self, schizophrenia, psychosis, self-experience, self-disorder

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