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      GREEN SITE DESIGN: STRATEGIES FOR STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

      research-article
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      Journal of Green Building
      College Publishing

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          INTRODUCTION

          Increasingly, proponents of green building are realizing the potential of green site development strategies on the future sustainability of urbanized areas. In particular, alternative strategies for stormwater management are being implemented and show significant promise (US EPA 2003). As the global population becomes more urban, the increase of impermeable surfaces has deleterious effects on water quality and amounts of urban runoff. Traditional approaches to development and stormwater management have resulted in stormwater systems becoming a rapid conduit for delivery of contaminated runoff to rivers and streams. Volumes have increased, concentration times reduced, and natural filtering processes have been bypassed. The result is increased flooding, polluted rivers and streams, health threats, habitat degradation, and increasing expense to maintain inadequate systems. Many municipalities and other government agencies in the US and abroad are attempting to address this issue through regulation and incentive. The United States Green Building Council LEED system recognizes and addresses this problem and the potential for more sustainable stormwater management practices.

          The benefits of green stormwater management strategies vary depending on the circumstances of each condition, but examples of lower cost and environmentally superior approaches are found in cities in the US and around the world. Integrating green strategies into new development projects, from planning stages through implementation, is the most cost effective and yields the most efficient and beneficial systems. Retrofitting existing stormwater management systems in cities can be more costly and provide more limited environmental benefits, but antiquation of existing systems creates opportunities to adapt and include green strategies as systems are rebuilt, updated, and improved (Kloss and Calrusse 2006).

          It is best to think of green stormwater management strategies holistically, allowing the most efficient opportunities for integration of techniques into the planning, design, and implementation process. These approaches are sometimes represented as green infrastructure (Dunn and Stoner 2007). They are cost effective, sustainable, and environmentally friendly. In general, green infrastructure uses natural systems to the greatest extent possible, but also uses engineered systems that mimic natural systems to collect, treat, and reduce stormwater runoff using plants, soils, and microbes. At broader scales, green infrastructure can consist of a set of connected natural and human-created open space elements that may include forests, flood plains and riparian corridors, wetlands, parks, and more. In addition to the storm-water management benefits provided, recreational activities and wildlife habitat are often accommodated.

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          Most cited references19

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          The contribution of particles washed from rooftops to contaminant loading to urban streams.

          Rooftops are both a source of and a pathway for contaminated runoff in urban environments. To investigate the importance of particle-associated contamination in rooftop runoff, particles washed from asphalt shingle and galvanized metal roofs at sites 12 and 102 m from a major expressway were analyzed for major and trace elements and PAHs. Concentrations and yields from rooftops were compared among locations and roofing material types and to loads monitored during runoff events in the receiving urban stream to evaluate rooftop sources and their potential contribution to stream loading. Concentrations of zinc, lead, pyrene, and chrysene on a mass per mass basis in a majority of rooftop samples exceeded established sediment quality guidelines for probable toxicity of bed sediments to benthic biota. Fallout near the expressway was greater than farther away, as indicated by larger yields of all contaminants investigated, although some concentrations were lower. Metal roofing was a source of cadmium and zinc and asphalt shingles a source of lead. The contribution of rooftop washoff to watershed loading was estimated to range from 6 percent for chromium and arsenic to 55 percent for zinc. Estimated contributions from roofing material to total watershed load were greatest for zinc and lead, contributing about 20 and 18 percent, respectively. The contribution from atmospheric deposition of particles onto rooftops to total watershed loads in stormwater was estimated to be greatest for mercury, contributing about 46 percent.
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            • Record: found
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            Storm Water Technology Fact Sheet Bioretention

            (1999)
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              • Abstract: not found
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              Stormwater technology fact sheet: Porous pavement

              (1999)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jgrb
                Journal of Green Building
                College Publishing
                1552-6100
                1943-4618
                1943-4618
                Fall 2007
                : 2
                : 4
                : 46-56
                Author notes

                1Associate Professor, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, College of Design, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA 85287-1605, edward.cook@ 123456asu.edu .

                Article
                jgb.2.4.46
                10.3992/jgb.2.4.46
                3e9d19b0-9a27-49bf-ad91-ed50b7bbd472
                ©2007 by College Publishing. All rights reserved.

                Volumes 1-7 of JOGB are open access and do not require permission for use, though proper citation should be given. To view the licenses, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

                History
                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Categories
                INDUSTRY CORNER

                Urban design & Planning,Civil engineering,Environmental management, Policy & Planning,Architecture,Environmental engineering

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