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      CRISPR-Mediated Base Editing Enables Efficient Disruption of Eukaryotic Genes through Induction of STOP Codons.

      Molecular Cell

      Elsevier BV

      nonsense mutations, CRISPR-mediated base editing, RFLP assay, STOP codons, cancer, genome-wide sgRNA analysis, iSTOP

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          Abstract

          Standard CRISPR-mediated gene disruption strategies rely on Cas9-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that CRISPR-dependent base editing efficiently inactivates genes by precisely converting four codons (CAA, CAG, CGA, and TGG) into STOP codons without DSB formation. To facilitate gene inactivation by induction of STOP codons (iSTOP), we provide access to a database of over 3.4 million single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) for iSTOP (sgSTOPs) targeting 97%-99% of genes in eight eukaryotic species, and we describe a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay that allows the rapid detection of iSTOP-mediated editing in cell populations and clones. To simplify the selection of sgSTOPs, our resource includes annotations for off-target propensity, percentage of isoforms targeted, prediction of nonsense-mediated decay, and restriction enzymes for RFLP analysis. Additionally, our database includes sgSTOPs that could be employed to precisely model over 32,000 cancer-associated nonsense mutations. Altogether, this work provides a comprehensive resource for DSB-free gene disruption by iSTOP.

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          CRISPR-Based Technologies for the Manipulation of Eukaryotic Genomes.

          The CRISPR-Cas9 RNA-guided DNA endonuclease has contributed to an explosion of advances in the life sciences that have grown from the ability to edit genomes within living cells. In this Review, we summarize CRISPR-based technologies that enable mammalian genome editing and their various applications. We describe recent developments that extend the generality, DNA specificity, product selectivity, and fundamental capabilities of natural CRISPR systems, and we highlight some of the remarkable advancements in basic research, biotechnology, and therapeutics science that these developments have facilitated.
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            Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay: an intricate machinery that shapes transcriptomes.

            Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is probably the best characterized eukaryotic RNA degradation pathway. Through intricate steps, a set of NMD factors recognize and degrade mRNAs with translation termination codons that are positioned in abnormal contexts. However, NMD is not only part of a general cellular quality control system that prevents the production of aberrant proteins. Mammalian cells also depend on NMD to dynamically adjust their transcriptomes and their proteomes to varying physiological conditions. In this Review, we discuss how NMD targets mRNAs, the types of mRNAs that are targeted, and the roles of NMD in cellular stress, differentiation and maturation processes.
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              Increasing the genome-targeting scope and precision of base editing with engineered Cas9-cytidine deaminase fusions

              Base editing is a recently developed approach to genome editing that uses a fusion protein containing a catalytically defective Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9, a cytidine deaminase, and an inhibitor of base excision repair to induce programmable, single-nucleotide changes in the DNA of living cells without generating double-strand DNA breaks, without requiring a donor DNA template, and without inducing an excess of stochastic insertions and deletions 1 . Here we report the development of five new C→T (or G→A) base editors that use natural and engineered Cas9 variants with different protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) specificities to expand the number of sites that can be targeted by base editing by 2.5-fold. Additionally, we engineered new base editors containing mutated cytidine deaminase domains that narrow the width of the apparent editing window from approximately 5 nucleotides to as little as 1 to 2 nucleotides, enabling the discrimination of neighboring C nucleotides that would previously be edited with comparable efficiency, thereby doubling the number of disease-associated target Cs that can be corrected preferentially over nearby non-target Cs. Collectively, these developments substantially increase the targeting scope of base editing and establish the modular nature of base editors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                28890334
                10.1016/j.molcel.2017.08.008
                5610906

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