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Shape analysis of moss (Bryophyta) sporophytes: Insights into land plant evolution.

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      Abstract

      The alternation of generations life cycle represents a key feature of land-plant evolution and has resulted in a diverse array of sporophyte forms and modifications in all groups of land plants. We test the hypothesis that evolution of sporangium (capsule) shape of the mosses-the second most diverse land-plant lineage-has been driven by differing physiological demands of life in diverse habitats. This study provides an important conceptual framework for analyzing the evolution of a single, homologous character in a continuous framework across a deep expanse of time, across all branches of the tree of life.

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      Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis.

      Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.
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        MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

        We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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          RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

          Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706. jrose@wisc.edu.
            [2 ] Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.
            Journal
            Am. J. Bot.
            American journal of botany
            Botanical Society of America
            1537-2197
            0002-9122
            April 2016
            : 103
            : 4
            26944353
            ajb.1500394
            10.3732/ajb.1500394

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