In rats, oxygen consumption is reduced by about 40–50% 24 h after bilateral nephrectomy. This is also the case when the animals are pretreated with triiodothyronine, 3 I× 0.75 mg/kg body weight orally, for 2–3 days. Indole, cresol, putrescine, methylguanidine or acetoine was given intraperitoneally to normal rats at doses of between 5 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Only low single doses of indole (5 mg/kg) reduced oxygen consumption significantly. Single doses of the other substances studied were ineffective even at tenfold higher doses. Some combinations of these substances, however, (10 mg/kg each), reduced the metabolic rate significantly. In contrast to the results in vivo, plasma of uremic rats, as well as the uremic toxins, dissolved in Krebs-phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at concentrations of 30 mg/dl each, had no influence on respiration of rat diaphragma or liver slices in vitro (single substances and different combinations).