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      Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism in Relation to Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Self-Construal

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          Abstract

          Abstract. A growing body of research suggests the viability of the distinction between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Each subtype of narcissism reveals distinct associations with life satisfaction, self-esteem, and self-construal. The goal of the present study ( N = 253) is to apply this distinction to replicate the results of previous studies with respect to life satisfaction and self-esteem and to extend the perspective by focusing on several components of self-construal: independent and interdependent (cf. Singelis, 1994). In addition, interdependent self-construal is either relational-interdependent or collective-interdependent (cf. Cross, Hardin, & Gercek-Swing, 2011). Specifically, four hypotheses are examined which have in common the assumption that grandiose and vulnerable narcissism diverge systematically in their implications for life satisfaction, self-esteem, and self-construal. Grandiose narcissism is expected to correlate positively with life satisfaction, self-esteem, independent self-construal, and collective-interdependent self-construal. In contrast, vulnerable narcissism is assumed to correlate negatively with self-esteem and life satisfaction and positively with interdependent and relational self-construal. The results, which confirm these hypotheses, underscore the necessity to differentiate between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Remarkably, both subtypes of narcissism are related to distinct dimensions of interdependent self-construal. Whereas grandiose narcissism is anchored in collective interdependence, vulnerable narcissism is embedded in relational interdependence.

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          Most cited references 42

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          One Hundred Years of Social Psychology Quantitatively Described.

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            Gender differences in self-esteem: a meta-analysis.

            Two analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in global self-esteem. In analysis I, a computerized literature search yielded 216 effect sizes, representing the testing of 97,121 respondents. The overall effect size was 0.21, a small difference favoring males. A significant quadratic effect of age indicated that the largest effect emerged in late adolescence (d = 0.33). In Analysis II, gender differences were examined using 3 large, nationally representative data sets from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). All of the NCES effect sizes, which collectively summarize the responses of approximately 48,000 young Americans, indicated higher male self-esteem (ds ranged from 0.04 to 0.24). Taken together, the 2 analyses provide evidence that males score higher on standard measures of global self-esteem than females, but the difference is small. Potential reasons for the small yet consistent effect size are discussed.
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              Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory.

              The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal narcissism and (b) insufficient scope of existing narcissism measures. Four studies are presented documenting the initial derivation and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI). The PNI is a 52-item self-report measure assessing 7 dimensions of pathological narcissism spanning problems with narcissistic grandiosity (Entitlement Rage, Exploitativeness, Grandiose Fantasy, Self-sacrificing Self-enhancement) and narcissistic vulnerability (Contingent Self-esteem, Hiding the Self, Devaluing). The PNI structure was validated via confirmatory factor analysis. The PNI correlated negatively with self-esteem and empathy, and positively with shame, interpersonal distress, aggression, and borderline personality organization. Grandiose PNI scales were associated with vindictive, domineering, intrusive, and overly-nurturant interpersonal problems, and vulnerable PNI scales were associated with cold, socially avoidant, and exploitable interpersonal problems. In a small clinical sample, PNI scales exhibited significant associations with parasuicidal behavior, suicide attempts, homicidal ideation, and several aspects of psychotherapy utilization. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                jid
                Journal of Individual Differences
                Hogrefe Publishing
                1614-0001
                2151-2299
                March 25, 2019
                2019
                : 40
                : 4
                : 194-203
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Psychology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany
                Author notes
                Elke Rohmann, Department of Psychology, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany, elke.rohmann@ 123456rub.de
                Article
                jid_40_4_194
                10.1027/1614-0001/a000292
                Product
                Self URI (journal-page): https://econtent.hogrefe.com/loi/jid
                Categories
                Original Article

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