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      Miliary brain tuberculomas and tuberculous meningitis presenting with stroke

      case-report

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          Abstract

          Even though it is an uncommon presentation of tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis is one of the most deadly manifestations. We report a case of a 6-year-old female who presented to the emergency room for left hemiparesis. Cerebral CT and MRI showed a right ischemic stroke with severe leptomeningitis in the medial cranial fossa. Numerous miliary tuberculomas were demonstrated, as well as a moderate hydrocephalus. Lumbar puncture revealed meningitis, and the mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction from CSF was positive. Pulmonary micronodules on chest CT were suggestive of tuberculosis. The clinical and radiological features, as well as the management approaches of this unusual disease complex, are addressed.

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          Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging-Focused Review of a Reemerging Disease

          Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging characteristics of the different forms of CNS tuberculosis, including meningitis, tuberculoma, miliary tuberculosis, abscess, cerebritis, and encephalopathy.
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            Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system tuberculosis

            Tuberculosis (TB) in any form is a devastating disease, which in its most severe form involves the central nervous system (CNS), with a high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of CNS TB is necessary for appropriate treatment to reduce this morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnostic techniques involve culture and immunological tests of the tissue and biofluids, which are time-consuming and may delay definitive management. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnosis of neurotuberculosis, with MRI offering greater inherent sensitivity and specificity than CT scan. In addition to conventional MRI imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques are also being evaluated for better tissue characterization in CNS TB. The current article reviews the role of various MRI techniques in the diagnosis and management of CNS TB.
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              Acute ischemic stroke in young adults with tuberculous meningitis

              Background Ischemic stroke is a common complication in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM), which is associated with poor clinical outcome. However, risk factors of stroke in TBM patients were not fully understood, especially in those young adults. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify risk factors for acute ischemic stroke in young adults with TBM. Methods TBM patients (18 to 50 years) without cerebral vascular risk factors were prospective recruited between Feb 2014 and Dec 2017. Patients were defined as stroke group and non-stroke group by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, basal meningeal enhancement, hydrocephalus, tuberculoma and clinical outcome were compared between two groups. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors for acute ischemic stroke in young TBM patients. Results Fifty-two patients with TBM were included and 12 (23.1%) patients were in stroke group. Patients in stroke group were older. Clinical presentations were comparable between two groups except headache was more common in TBM patients with stroke. In CSF examination, TBM patients with stroke had higher CSF white blood cell. By MRI, patients in stroke group were more likely to have basal meningeal enhancement but less likely to present tuberculoma. Compared to non-stroke group, patients in stroke group had worse short-term clinical outcome. In logistic regression, age (OR = 1.297; 95%CI 1.067, 1.576), CSF white blood cell (OR = 1.023; 95%CI 1.005, 1.042) and basal meningeal enhancement (OR = 23.913; 95%CI 1.398, 408.975) were independent risk factors for stroke. However, tuberculoma (OR = 0.005; 95%CI 0.000, 0.254) was negative related with stroke. Conclusions About a quarter of young adults with TBM have acute ischemic stroke which may lead to poor clinical outcome. Age, CSF white blood cell and basal meningeal enhancement are risk factors for acute ischemic stroke in young adults with TBM.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Radiol Case Rep
                Radiol Case Rep
                Radiology Case Reports
                Elsevier
                1930-0433
                06 December 2023
                February 2024
                06 December 2023
                : 19
                : 2
                : 798-801
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Radiology, Mohammed VI University Hospital, Oujda, Morocco
                [b ]Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed 1st University, Oujda, Morocco
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. elaggari.hanane@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S1930-0433(23)00745-8
                10.1016/j.radcr.2023.10.004
                10726326
                38111555
                3ecb1e38-b014-4bc0-a6ad-3ae91bd8cf5a
                © 2023 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of University of Washington.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 15 March 2023
                : 27 August 2023
                : 1 October 2023
                Categories
                Case Report

                tuberculosis,tuberculous meningitis,cerebral infarct,tuberculomas

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