1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Effect of specific deep cervical muscle exercises on functional disability, pain intensity, craniovertebral angle, and neck-muscle strength in chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background

          Exercise is known to be an important component of treatment programs for individuals with neck pain. The study aimed to compare the effects of semispinalis cervicis (extensor) training, deep cervical flexor (flexor) training, and usual care (control) on functional disability, pain intensity, craniovertebral (CV) angle, and neck-muscle strength in chronic mechanical neck pain.

          Methods

          A total of 54 individuals with chronic mechanical neck pain were randomly allocated to three groups: extensor training, flexor training, or control. A Thai version of the Neck Disability Index, numeric pain scale (NPS), CV angle, and neck-muscle strength were measured at baseline, immediately after 6 weeks of training, and at 1- and 3 -month follow-up.

          Results

          Neck Disability Index scores improved significantly more in the exercise groups than in the control group after 6 weeks training and at 1- and 3-month follow-up in both the exten-sor ( P=0.001) and flexor groups ( P=0.003, P=0.001, P=0.004, respectively). NPS scores also improved significantly more in the exercise groups than in the control group after 6 weeks’ training in both the extensor ( P<0.0001) and flexor groups ( P=0.029. In both exercise groups, the CV angle improved significantly compared with the control group at 6 weeks and 3 months (extensor group, P=0.008 and P=0.01, respectively; flexor group, P=0.002 and 0.009, respectively). At 1 month, the CV angle had improved significantly in the flexor group ( P=0.006). Muscle strength in both exercise groups had improved significantly more than in the control group at 6 weeks and 1- and 3-month follow-up (extensor group, P=0.04, P=0.02, P=0.002, respectively; flexor group, P=0.002, P=0.001, and 0.001, respectively). The semispinalis group gained extensor strength and the deep cervical flexor group gained flexor strength.

          Conclusion

          The results suggest that 6 weeks of training in both exercise groups can improve neck disability, pain intensity, CV angle, and neck-muscle strength in chronic mechanical neck pain.

          Trial registration

          NCT02656030

          Related collections

          Most cited references 40

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The burden and determinants of neck pain in the general population: results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders.

          Best evidence synthesis. To undertake a best evidence synthesis of the published evidence on the burden and determinants of neck pain and its associated disorders in the general population. The evidence on burden and determinants of neck has not previously been summarized. The Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders performed a systematic search and critical review of literature published between 1980 and 2006 to assemble the best evidence on neck pain. Studies meeting criteria for scientific validity were included in a best evidence synthesis. We identified 469 studies on burden and determinants of neck pain, and judged 249 to be scientifically admissible; 101 articles related to the burden and determinants of neck pain in the general population. Incidence ranged from 0.055 per 1000 person years (disc herniation with radiculopathy) to 213 per 1000 persons (self-reported neck pain). Incidence of neck injuries during competitive sports ranged from 0.02 to 21 per 1000 exposures. The 12-month prevalence of pain typically ranged between 30% and 50%; the 12-month prevalence of activity-limiting pain was 1.7% to 11.5%. Neck pain was more prevalent among women and prevalence peaked in middle age. Risk factors for neck pain included genetics, poor psychological health, and exposure to tobacco. Disc degeneration was not identified as a risk factor. The use of sporting gear (helmets, face shields) to prevent other types of injury was not associated with increased neck injuries in bicycling, hockey, or skiing. Neck pain is common. Nonmodifiable risk factors for neck pain included age, gender, and genetics. Modifiable factors included smoking, exposure to tobacco, and psychological health. Disc degeneration was not identified as a risk factor. Future research should concentrate on longitudinal designs exploring preventive strategies and modifiable risk factors for neck pain.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Validation of a verbally administered numerical rating scale of acute pain for use in the emergency department.

            Verbally administered numerical rating scales (NRSs) from 0 to 10 are often used to measure pain, but they have not been validated in the emergency department (ED) setting. The authors wished to assess the comparability of the NRS and visual analog scale (VAS) as measures of acute pain, and to identify the minimum clinically significant difference in pain that could be detected on the NRS. This was a prospective cohort study of a convenience sample of adults presenting with acute pain to an urban ED. Patients verbally rated pain intensity as an integer from 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain), and marked a 10-cm horizontal VAS bounded by these descriptors. VAS and NRS data were obtained at presentation, 30 minutes later, and 60 minutes later. At 30 and 60 minutes, patients were asked whether their pain was "much less," "a little less," "about the same," "a little more," or "much more." Differences between consecutive pairs of measurements on the VAS and NRS obtained at 30-minute intervals were calculated for each of the five categories of pain descriptor. The association between VAS and NRS scores was expressed as a correlation coefficient. The VAS scores were regressed on the NRS scores in order to assess the equivalence of the measures. The mean changes associated with descriptors "a little less" or "a little more" were combined to define the minimum clinically significant difference in pain measured on the VAS and NRS. Of 108 patients entered, 103 provided data at 30 minutes and 86 at 60 minutes. NRS scores were strongly correlated to VAS scores at all time periods (r = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.95). The slope of the regression line was 1.01 (95% CI = 0.97 to 1.06) and the y-intercept was -0.34 (95% CI = -0.67 to -0.01). The minimum clinically significant difference in pain was 1.3 (95% CI = 1.0 to 1.5) on the NRS and 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1 to 1.7) on the VAS. The findings suggest that the verbally administered NRS can be substituted for the VAS in acute pain measurement.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey. The prevalence of neck pain and related disability in Saskatchewan adults.

              Population-based, cross-sectional mailed survey. To determine the lifetime, period, and point prevalence of neck pain and its related disability among Saskatchewan adults and investigate the presence and strength of nonresponse bias. In Europe, the lifetime and point prevalence of neck pain is almost as high as the prevalence of low back pain. Similarly, chronic neck pain is highly prevalent and a common source of disability in the working-age population. However, no studies specifically have documented the prevalence of neck pain and its related disability in North America. The Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey was mailed to 2184 randomly selected Saskatchewan adults aged 20-69 years. Fifty-five percent of the study population participated. The presence of nonresponse bias was investigated through logistic regression and wave analysis. The Chronic Pain Questionnaire was used to classify the severity of chronic neck pain. The age-standardized lifetime prevalence of neck pain is 66.7% (95% confidence interval, 63.8-69.5), and the point prevalence is 22.2% (95% confidence interval, 19.7-24.7). The age-standardized 6-month prevalence of low-intensity and low-disability neck pain is 39.7% (95% confidence interval, 36.7-42.7), whereas it is 10.1% (95% confidence interval, 8.2-11.9) for high-intensity and low-disability neck pain and 4.6% (95% confidence interval, 3.3-5.8) for significantly disabling neck pain. The prevalence of low-intensity and low-disability neck pain decreases with age. More women experience high-disability neck pain than men. Wave analysis suggests that the point prevalence and 6-month prevalence of high-intensity and low-disability neck pain are overestimated in this survey. This cross-sectional study shows that neck pain is highly prevalent in Saskatchewan and that it significantly disables 4.6% (95% confidence interval, 3.3-5.8) of the adult population.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2019
                07 March 2019
                : 12
                : 915-925
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, rungthiprt@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
                [3 ]School of Health Sciences (Physiotherapy), University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Rungthip Puntumetakul, School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, 123 Mittraphap Road, Meang, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand, Tel +66 43 202 085, Email rungthiprt@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                jpr-12-915
                10.2147/JPR.S190125
                6411318
                © 2019 Suvarnnato et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Clinical Trial Report

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                chronic neck pain, deep-neck muscles, specific training

                Comments

                Comment on this article