From early this decade, Enterobacteriaceae that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases
(KPC) were reported in the USA and subsequently worldwide. These KPC-producing bacteria
are predominantly involved in nosocomial and systemic infections; although they are
mostly Enterobacteriaceae, they can also be, rarely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.
KPC beta lactamases (KPC-1 to KPC-7) confer decreased susceptibility or resistance
to virtually all beta lactams. Carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem) may
thus become inefficient for treating enterobacterial infections with KPC-producing
bacteria, which are, in addition, resistant to many other non-beta-lactam molecules,
leaving few available therapeutic options. Detection of KPC-producing bacteria may
be difficult based on routine antibiotic susceptibility testing. It is therefore crucial
to implement efficient infection control measures to limit the spread of these pathogens.