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      Topographic Distribution of Aquaporin 2 mRNA in the Kidney of Dehydrated Rats

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          Background: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin results in an immediate redistribution of water channels (aquaporin 2; AQP2) in the apical membrane of the collecting ducts, leading to water reabsorption. Water restriction for ≧24 h increases AQP2 proteins in the whole collecting duct which is highest in the inner medulla of the kidney, indicating that dehydration enhances synthesis of this protein. Although increased expression of AQP2 mRNA under this condition has been reported, the increased ratio of mRNA expression in the three regions of the kidney, cortex, outer medulla, and inner medulla, during the dehydration is still unclear. Methods: We investigated the AQP2 transcripts using male Sprague-Dawley rats deprived of water for 24 h. Mimic cDNA for competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was constructed by deleting 180 bp at the middle of a 780-bp partial PCR product for rat AQP2 cDNA. In situ hybridization of the kidney and Northern blotting of inner medulla were performed using a 60-bp oligo-cDNA probe which identified rat AQP2 transcripts in the collecting duct. Results: Dehydration resulted in a significant increase in plasma osmolality and arginine vasopressin concentration and urinary osmolality. Competitive PCR demonstrated that dehydration increased AQP2 transcripts in all parts of the kidney, but was highest in the inner medulla. Northern blotting confirmed the high increased rate of AQP2 transcription in the inner medulla. In situ hybridization showed markedly intensified signals in the inner medulla of dehydrated rats. Conclusions: Our data indicate that dehydration increases the abundance of AQP2 transcripts which may be closely associated with enhancement in AQP2 protein synthesis reported previously. This topographically variable increase in transcription is considered to be one of the mechanisms involved in long-term regulation of water permeability in the collecting duct.

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          cAMP-dependent phosphorylation stimulates water permeability of aquaporin-collecting duct water channel protein expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

          Among water channel proteins (aquaporins), aquaporin-collecting duct (AQP-CD) is the vasopressin-regulated water channel. Vasopressin causes cAMP production in the renal collecting duct cells, and this is believed to lead to exocytic insertion of water channel into the apical membrane (shuttle hypothesis). AQP-CD contains a consensus sequence for cAMP-dependent protein kinase, residues at positions 253-256 (Arg-Arg-Gln-Ser). To determine the role of this site, Ser-256 was substituted for Ala, Leu, Thr, Asp, or Glu by site-directed mutagenesis. In Xenopus oocytes injected with wild-type or mutated AQP-CD cRNAs, osmotic water permeability (Pf) was 4.8-7.7 times higher than Pf of water-injected oocytes. Incubation with cAMP plus forskolin or direct cAMP injection into the oocytes increased Pf of wild-type, but not mutated, AQP-CD-expressing oocytes, whereas the amounts of AQP-CD expression were similar in wild and mutated types as identified by Western blot analysis. In vitro phosphorylation studies of AQP-CD proteins expressed in oocyte showed that cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylated wild-type, but not mutated, AQP-CD proteins. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that this phosphorylation occurred at the serine residue. Moreover, phosphorylation of AQP-CD protein in intact rat kidney medulla tissues was stimulated by incubation with cAMP. Our data suggest that cAMP stimulates water permeability of AQP-CD by phosphorylation. This process may contribute to the vasopressin-regulated water permeability of collecting duct in addition to the apical insertion of AQP-CD by exocytosis.

            Author and article information

            Nephron Exp Nephrol
            Cardiorenal Medicine
            S. Karger AG
            February 2000
            14 January 2000
            : 8
            : 1
            : 28-36
            Second Department of Internal Medicine, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
            63279 Exp Nephrol 2000;8:28–36
            © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Page count
            Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 18, Pages: 9
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            Original Paper

            Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

            Water channel, Osmolality, Vasopressin, Renal water reabsorption


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