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      The impact of COVID-19 on multidrug-resistant organisms causing healthcare-associated infections: a narrative review

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          Abstract

          Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) changed healthcare across the world. With this change came an increase in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and a concerning concurrent proliferation of MDR organisms (MDROs). In this narrative review, we describe the impact of COVID-19 on HAIs and MDROs, describe potential causes of these changes, and discuss future directions to combat the observed rise in rates of HAIs and MDRO infections.

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          Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

          Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
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            Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 — Preliminary Report

            Abstract Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with diffuse lung damage. Glucocorticoids may modulate inflammation-mediated lung injury and thereby reduce progression to respiratory failure and death. Methods In this controlled, open-label trial comparing a range of possible treatments in patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19, we randomly assigned patients to receive oral or intravenous dexamethasone (at a dose of 6 mg once daily) for up to 10 days or to receive usual care alone. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Here, we report the preliminary results of this comparison. Results A total of 2104 patients were assigned to receive dexamethasone and 4321 to receive usual care. Overall, 482 patients (22.9%) in the dexamethasone group and 1110 patients (25.7%) in the usual care group died within 28 days after randomization (age-adjusted rate ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.93; P<0.001). The proportional and absolute between-group differences in mortality varied considerably according to the level of respiratory support that the patients were receiving at the time of randomization. In the dexamethasone group, the incidence of death was lower than that in the usual care group among patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (29.3% vs. 41.4%; rate ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.81) and among those receiving oxygen without invasive mechanical ventilation (23.3% vs. 26.2%; rate ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.94) but not among those who were receiving no respiratory support at randomization (17.8% vs. 14.0%; rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.55). Conclusions In patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the use of dexamethasone resulted in lower 28-day mortality among those who were receiving either invasive mechanical ventilation or oxygen alone at randomization but not among those receiving no respiratory support. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health Research and others; RECOVERY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04381936; ISRCTN number, 50189673.)
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              Co-infections in people with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

              Highlights • SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID19 disease, has spread globally since late 2019 • Bacterial coinfections associated with mortality in previous influenza pandemics • Proportion of COVID19 patients with bacterial coinfection less than in flu pandemics • Higher proportion of critically-ill with bacterial coinfections than in mixed setting • Bacterial co-pathogen profiles different to those in influenza co-infections • Fungal coinfection diagnosis difficult so high level suspicion in critically-ill
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                JAC Antimicrob Resist
                JAC Antimicrob Resist
                jacamr
                JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance
                Oxford University Press (US )
                2632-1823
                February 2023
                29 December 2022
                29 December 2022
                : 5
                : 1
                : dlac130
                Affiliations
                Division of Infection Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine , Atlanta, GA, USA
                Division of Infection Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine , Atlanta, GA, USA
                Emory Antibiotic Resistance Group, Emory University , Atlanta, GA, USA
                Division of Infection Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine , Atlanta, GA, USA
                Emory Antibiotic Resistance Group, Emory University , Atlanta, GA, USA
                Division of Infection Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine , Atlanta, GA, USA
                Emory Antibiotic Resistance Group, Emory University , Atlanta, GA, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author. E-mail: lwitt@ 123456emory.edu ; @drwittID, @JessH_A, @jestjac
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1475-6952
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9924-0458
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9811-6260
                Article
                dlac130
                10.1093/jacamr/dlac130
                9798082
                36601548
                3ee3a9a7-286a-4062-8c65-0037b5acc0f8
                © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Categories
                Review
                AcademicSubjects/MED00740
                AcademicSubjects/SCI01150

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