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      Efficacy of mummy on healing of pressure ulcers: A randomized controlled clinical trial on hospitalized patients in intensive care unit


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          Mummy is a mineral substance which according to Persian medicine texts, may be useful in treatment of chronic ulcers.


          The present study was performed with the aim of determining the effect of mummy on healing of pressure in male patients who had been hospitalized due to cerebrospinal injury in the Intensive Care Unit.


          This randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 75 patients who had pressure ulcer at Shahid Bahonar Hospital in Kerman, Iran, from September 2016 to March 2017. The control group received normal saline and routine wound dressing, while the intervention group received mummy water solution 20% in addition to normal saline and routine wound dressing on a daily basis. Data was recorded based on the PUSH method. In both groups, ulcers were evaluated on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 for the variables of ulcer surface area, the amount of exudate and type of tissue. Data analysis was done through SPSS 21 and using t-test, Repeated Measure Analysis, Cox Regression and Chi-square.


          Both groups showed reduction in the average ulcer surface area (3.26 to 0.53 in the intervention group and 5.1 to 3.46 in the control group), the average exudate amount (1.26 to 0.26 in the intervention group and 1.83 to 1.06 in the control group) and the average tissue score (1.36 to 0.23 in the intervention group and 2.13 to 1.26 in the control group). Over the entire study period, the intervention group showed more acceptable signs of healing compared to the control group (p<0.05).


          The healing process was more prominent in the intervention group than the control group.

          Clinical trial registration

          The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with registered NO. (IRCT2014042917494N1) (29/04/2014).


          No financial support for the research.

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          Most cited references20

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          Review on shilajit used in traditional Indian medicine.

          Shilajit is a multi-component natural occurring mineral substance used in Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicine which originated in India. Its source can be traced to the mountainous regions, where the hilly tribes first identified its beneficial use. Shilajit is aptly referred to as 'rasayana'/'rasayanam' in Ayurveda and Siddha literature which means rejuvenator because it prevents ailment and enhances the quality of life. An attempt has been put forth to review shilajit pertaining to its origin, synonyms, varieties, physical properties, chemical constituents, therapeutic properties and important biological properties to affirm its rasayana property. All relevant information on shilajit was collected from classical texts including pharmacopoeias, formularies, etc. Moreover, select doctoral thesis from Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar were also scanned. Published papers on shilajit were collected from important databases for biomedical sciences. Amongst, the various biological properties of shilajit, antioxidant activity and immuno-modulatory activity were focused as it is closely related to its rasayana potential. This review finds that shilajit is used in twenty Sastric formulations and twenty-four proprietary drugs for extraneous indications. Even-though, there is a long history of use of shilajit in traditional Indian materia medica, shilajit unfortunately lacks scientific evaluation and systematic documentation. In vivo antioxidant activity of shilajit has been studied at an irrelevant dose and without using a positive control. The immuno-modulatory activity does not stand the test of critical assessment and currently may be considered as unproven. Based on the earlier studies, the bioactivity of shilajit lacks substantial evidence. Nevertheless, further studies are imperative to overcome the lacuna in establishing the antioxidant property of shilajit and more specific assays are needed to vouch shilajit as an immuno-modulator which may be of use to establish its rasayana potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory studies with shilajit.

            In folk medicine, shilajit has been used to treat diverse clinical conditions ranging from peptic ulcer to bone healing. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory activities of shilajit obtained from the rocky mountains of Zarlek, Badekshan, Afghanistan. Shilajit increased the carbohydrate/protein ratio and decreased gastric ulcer index, indicating an increased mucus barrier. Shilajit was found to have significant antiinflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced acute pedal oedema, granuloma pouch and adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The results of the present study thus substantiate the use of shilajit in peptic ulcer and inflammation.
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              Cost analysis of surgically treated pressure sores stage III and IV.

              Health-care costs associated with pressure sores are significant and their financial burden is likely to increase even further. The aim of this study was to analyse the direct medical costs of hospital care for surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III and IV. We performed a retrospective chart study of patients who were surgically treated for stage III and IV pressure sores between 2007 and 2010. Volumes of health-care use were obtained for all patients and direct medical costs were subsequently calculated. In addition, we evaluated the effect of location and number of pressure sores on total costs. A total of 52 cases were identified. Average direct medical costs in hospital were €20,957 for the surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III or IV; average direct medical costs for patients with one pressure sore on an extremity (group 1, n = 5) were €30,286, €10,113 for patients with one pressure sore on the trunk (group 2, n = 32) and €40,882 for patients with multiple pressure sores (group 3, n = 15). The additional costs for patients in group 1 and group 3 compared to group 2 were primarily due to longer hospitalisation. The average direct medical costs for surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III and IV were high. Large differences in costs were related to the location and number of pressure sores. Insight into the distribution of these costs allows identification of high-risk patients and enables the development of specific cost-reducing measures.

                Author and article information

                Electron Physician
                Electron Physician
                Electronic physician
                Electronic Physician
                Electronic physician
                January 2018
                25 January 2018
                : 10
                : 1
                : 6140-6147
                [1 ]Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Persian Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacognosy, Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [4 ]Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [5 ]Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran
                [6 ]Department of Persian Medicine, School of Medicine, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Assistant Professor Dr. Haleh Tajadini, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Tel.: +989131972312 and +983432102020, Email: dr_haleh@ 123456yahoo.com
                © 2018 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                Original Article

                pressure ulcer,mummy,intensive care unit
                pressure ulcer, mummy, intensive care unit


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