Colonization of the ocular conjunctiva in newborns delivered by cesarian section occurs usually within the first day of life. We have studied the flora of the ocular conjunctiva at birth, from 19 newborns delivered by cesarian section, coming from two different maternity hospitals. Ocular conjunctiva cultures yielded the main predominant flora in both maternity hospitals considered. The most common genus of this flora are: Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium acnes. Peptostreptococcus productus, Neisseria, Eubacterhim and Clostridium perfringens are isolated occasionally. In newborns delivered by cesarian section, this flora principally acquired may be the consequence of the presence of bacteria in the ambient air, as well as differences in care provided by the nosocomial personnel.