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      Colloquium: Nonequilibrium dynamics of closed interacting quantum systems

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          Absence of Diffusion in Certain Random Lattices

           P W Anderson (1958)
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            Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms.

            For a system at a temperature of absolute zero, all thermal fluctuations are frozen out, while quantum fluctuations prevail. These microscopic quantum fluctuations can induce a macroscopic phase transition in the ground state of a many-body system when the relative strength of two competing energy terms is varied across a critical value. Here we observe such a quantum phase transition in a Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive interactions, held in a three-dimensional optical lattice potential. As the potential depth of the lattice is increased, a transition is observed from a superfluid to a Mott insulator phase. In the superfluid phase, each atom is spread out over the entire lattice, with long-range phase coherence. But in the insulating phase, exact numbers of atoms are localized at individual lattice sites, with no phase coherence across the lattice; this phase is characterized by a gap in the excitation spectrum. We can induce reversible changes between the two ground states of the system.
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              Density matrix formulation for quantum renormalization groups

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                RMPHAT
                Reviews of Modern Physics
                Rev. Mod. Phys.
                American Physical Society (APS)
                0034-6861
                1539-0756
                August 2011
                August 15 2011
                : 83
                : 3
                : 863-883
                10.1103/RevModPhys.83.863
                © 2011

                http://link.aps.org/licenses/aps-default-license

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